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African Americans: Overview  

Larry E. Davis, John M. Wallace Jr., and Trina R. Williams Shanks

African Americans have been a part of the nation's history for nearly four hundred years. Although their history includes the forced imposition of chattel slavery, the strict enforcement ... More

African Americans: Immigrants of African Origin  

Fariyal Ross-Sheriff and Tamarah Moss-Knight

The number and percentage of immigrants and refugees from Africa to the United States have increased substantially since the mid-1990s. Though still a relatively small percentage of the ... More

African Americans: Practice Interventions  

Sharon E. Moore

African Americans number about 35 million or 12% of the U.S. population. Their life expectancy is lower than that of White Americans, and despite the educational gains made since ... More

African American Social Welfare History  

Iris Carlton-LaNey

This article discusses the African American social welfare system that began to develop during the early 20th century. This social welfare system, designed by African Americans to serve ... More

Afrocentric Social Work  

Colita Nichols Fairfax

Afrocentric social work is a concept and praxis approach applicable in environmental and global settings where people of African descent are located. Using concept analysis as a ... More

Aging: Racial and Ethnic Groups  

Daniel S. Gardner and Caroline Rosenthal Gelman

Minority and immigrant elders constitute a greater proportion of the population than ever before and are the fastest growing segment of the older population. Within these racial and ethnic ... More

Alaska Natives  

Sarah (Hicks) Kastelic

Alaska Natives represent less than 1% of the U.S. population but reside in more than 229 Native villages and account for 40% of federally recognized tribes. Most Alaska Native communities ... More

Arab Americans  

Kristine J. Ajrouch

This entry defines the term Arab American, followed by a discussion of the two waves of immigration: before 1924 and post-1965. A demographic overview is presented next, drawing from data ... More

Asian Americans: South Asians  

Brij Mohan

This entry briefly profiles the dynamic fusion, fluidity, and future of South Asians in America. While Diaspora India is emblematic of immigrant culture as a whole, South Asian duality ... More

Asian Americans: Filipinos  

Paula T. Morelli, Alma Trinidad, and Richard Alboroto

Online publication date:
Sep 2014
Filipinos are the second largest group of Asians in the United States; more than 3.4 million Filipino Americans live primarily within the largest U.S. continental cities (including Los ... More

Asylum Seekers, Refugees, and Immigrants in the United States  

Miriam Potocky

This entry presents introductory information on asylum seekers, refugees, and immigrants in the United States, including distinctions among them, major regions of origin, demographic and ... More

Caribbean Americans  

Marcia Bayne-Smith and Annette M. Mahoney

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
The diverse group of people referred to as Caribbean Americans come from the Circum-Caribbean region, which includes the island nations of the Caribbean Sea and the nations of Central ... More

Cultural Competence  

Terry L. Cross

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Cultural competence emerged as a concept in the 1980s, took form as a set of organizational, educational, advocacy, policy, and practice constructs in the 1990s, and has since matured into ... More

Cultural Competence and Critical Consciousness in Social Work Pedagogy  

Ronald Pitner and Izumi Sakamoto

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
For social workers, developing cultural competence is a necessary hallmark for interacting with our increasingly diverse and complex world. Developing cultural competence, however, ... More

Cultural Competency in Mental-Health Services  

Jun Sung Hong and Wynne Sandra Korr

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
Since the 1980s, cultural competency has increasingly been recognized as a salient factor in the helping process, which requires social-work professionals to effectively integrate cultural ... More

Cultural Equity and the Displacement of Othering  

Rhea Almeida

This article proposes social equity as a paradigm to guide social work practice and education. “Cultural equity” encompasses the multiplicity of personal, social, and institutional ... More

Cultural Institutions and the Arts  

Lorraine Gutiérrez and Mark Creekmore

Online publication date:
Jun 2013
The arts and cultural institutions can be powerful resources for promoting the development of individuals and communities. Social work agencies and cultural institutions share similar ... More

Culturally Competent Practice  

Doman Lum

This entry defines cultural competence and culturally competent practice and focuses on cultural awareness, knowledge acquisition, skill development, and inductive learning as key ... More

Culture and Identity in Generic Social Work  

Ramona W. Denby and Allison Bowmer

Online publication date:
Nov 2013
The notion of culture, while vast, is often conceptualized through an examination of gender, race, and ethnicity; class and economics; religion; sexual orientation; and even age. Culture ... More

Demographics  

Gunnar Almgren and Ji Young Kang

This entry provides a brief overview of the field of social demography, the components of population change, projections for future population growth, and recent transformations in ... More

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