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date: 18 April 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This entry traces the development of both theory and empirical knowledge on the relationship between work and mental and physical health. Intrinsic job characteristics continue to shape the extent to which workers find meaning in what they do, and theories of stress and social roles continue to guide research. The field now includes investigations of how work affects personal life and theories that recognize the beneficial health effects of well-designed jobs. Social workers are advised that lower-level jobs come up short on all the positive qualities of employment covered in this entry, placing their workers' mental and physical health at risk.

Keywords: employment, work, jobs, intrinsic job characteristics, occupational health, role theory, job stress, spillover, work–life supports, work–life balance, work–life integration, job challenge, autonomy, flexibility, nonstandard schedules, predictability, supervision, co workers, low-wage workers, lower-level jobs

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