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The History of Migrant Labor in South Africa (1800–2014)  

Peter Delius

Online publication date:
May 2017
A pervasive system of migrant labor played a fundamental part in shaping the past and present of South Africa’s economy and society and has left indelible marks on the wider region. South ... More

The Internet and Social Media as Sources  

Aubrey Bloomfield and Sean Jacobs

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
The Internet and social media increasingly are becoming sources about the African past and present in ways that will influence to some extent how history will be learnt and the form that ... More

The Legal and Political Framework for Archaeology and the Protection of Archaeological Resources in South Africa  

Janette Deacon

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The Nile Waters Issue  

Terje Tvedt

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
To understand the role of the modern Nile in African history, it is first necessary to have familiarity with the premodern “natural” Nile, including both its hydrology and societal ... More

The Tangier American Legation Museum  

Diana Wylie

The Tangier American Legation Museum reflects the evolution of Moroccan–American relations over two centuries. Morocco, the first country to recognize the independence of the United States ... More

The Wisconsin School of African History  

Joseph C. Miller

The University of Wisconsin-Madison has been a prominent producer of doctorates in African history since 1963. As of 2017 the institution had granted more than 110 degrees. Philip D. ... More

Travelers’ Accounts as Sources  

Adam Jones

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Accounts written by foreigners—especially Europeans—about what they saw in Africa constitute one of the major sources for African history between c. 1450 and c. 1900. Some were published, ... More

Tropical Africa in the Global Economy  

Ralph A. Austen

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Tropical Africa has been in communication with the global economy since at least the last centuries bce through either land travel across the Sahara to the Mediterranean or navigation ... More

Ujamaa  

Michael Jennings

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
The idea of Ujamaa emerged from the writing and speeches of Tanzania’s first president, Julius K Nyerere, from the late 1950s and into the 1960s. Usually translated as “familyhood,” it was ... More

Urbanization in East Africa, circa 900–2010 CE  

Andrew Burton

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
East Africa’s urban past is broken down into five historical periods. The first (c. 900–1500 ce) saw the emergence of an urban Swahili culture on the East African coast that flourished ... More

Urban Life in French West Africa (FWA)  

Odile Goerg

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
During colonial times, cities, whether ancient or modern, underwent enormous changes. Urban life can be seen as a story of continuity and change, of invention and adaptation. Multiple ... More

Urban Society in Colonial Sudan  

Ahmad Alawad Sikainga

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
As in the rest of Africa, the establishment of colonial rule has accelerated the pace of urban growth in the Sudan. During the period of British colonial rule (1898–1956), a number of new ... More

Uwilingiyimana, Agathe  

Jennie Burnet

Agathe Uwilingiyimana was the first woman prime minister of Rwanda and only the second woman prime minister on the African continent. A Hutu from southern Rwanda, she was among the first ... More

Water Management in East Africa  

Matthew V. Bender

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
East Africa is among the most environmentally diverse regions of the continent, and this diversity is reflected in its hydrology. The steppe plains, home to much of the region’s great ... More

West African Cinema  

John C. McCall

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Motion picture technology developed at the dawn of the 20th century, just as the formal colonization of Africa was launched at the Berlin Conference of 1884–1885. While it took a few ... More

West African Manuscripts in Arabic and African Languages and Digital Preservation  

Fallou Ngom

West African manuscripts are numerous and varied in forms and contents. There are thousands of them across West Africa. A significant portion of them are documents written in Arabic and ... More

Western Education and the Rise of a New African Elite in West Africa  

Apollos Okwuchi Nwauwa

With the arrival of Europeans in West Africa in the 15th century, which preceded formal conquest and pacification, missionaries took the lead in introducing Western education as an ... More

Witchcraft in Africa: Political Power and Spiritual Insecurity from the Precolonial Era to the Present  

Sean Redding

Historically, witchcraft in Africa has not comprised a stable or uniform set of beliefs. The idea of witchcraft, which might loosely be defined as the belief that people exist who use ... More

Women and Apartheid  

Meghan Healy-Clancy

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Apartheid, the system of racial and ethnic separation introduced in South Africa in 1948, was a gendered project. The immediate goal of the white Afrikaner men who led the apartheid state ... More

Women and Development  

Michael Kevane

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Development is a process that transforms societies. Despite considerable variation across world regions and over time, one commonality of development has been that the initial phase, from ... More

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