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Ancient Developments in the Middle Senegal Valley and the Inland Niger Delta  

Alioune Dème

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The study of West Africa has contributed to the expansion of comparative arid-lands floodplain prehistory, from both the data collection (cultural and historical) and the theoretical ... More

An Environmental History of Southern Africa  

Jasper Knight

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Southern Africa
Southern Africa has experienced significant environmental changes since the breakup of the Gondwana supercontinent, starting around 180 million years ago. These environmental changes ... More

Animals in African History  

Sandra Swart

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Animal history in Africa—the multi-species story of the continent’s past—as a separate subdisciplinary “turn” is both recent and tentative, but as an integrated theme within the broader ... More

Animating African History: Digital and Visual Trends  

Paula Callus

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Cultural History, Image of Africa
Contrary to popular belief, the animated moving image on the African continent has long and diverse histories across many countries. Although it shares both the technology and some of the ... More

An Introduction to the Lower Niger Bronzes of Southern Nigeria  

Philip M. Peek

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Archaeology, West Africa
Southern Nigeria is rich in copper alloy cast works, such as those of the 9th-century burial goods of Igbo-Ukwu, the busts from 13th-century Ife, and the heads and plaques from the early ... More

The Anlu Rebellion  

Jacqueline-Bethel Tchouta Mougoué

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
From 1958 to 1961, Kom women in western Cameroon cast aside their regular domestic and agricultural duties to engage in a revolt against British administrative interference in ... More

Anthropological and Ethnographic Methods and Sources  

Constance Smith

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
For scholars of African history, anthropology offers a number of valuable and invigorating methodological avenues, from engaging directly in ethnographic fieldwork to analyzing ... More

Anthropology and the Study of Africa  

Jessica Johnson

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Historiography and Methods
Anthropology is the study of human societies and cultures. It developed from the 19th century with a focus on the study of societies located outside Europe, often colonized peoples. It has ... More

Archaeobotany: Methods  

Louis Champion and Dorian Q. Fuller

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Archaeology, Historiography and Methods
Archaeobotany’s goals are to investigate the interactions between human societies and the plant world in the past from the botanical remains preserved in archaeological sites, including the ... More

Archaeology and Heritage of Slavery in Eastern Africa  

Lydia Wilson Marshall

Despite its long history in the region, slavery in Eastern Africa has attracted little archaeological attention. This deficit is partly due to the reticence of many Eastern Africans to ... More

Archaeology of Colonial Settlement at the Cape  

Antonia Malan

Online publication date:
Nov 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Archaeology, Social History, Southern Africa
Colonial settlement at the southern tip of Africa was pre-dated by 150 years of occasional encounters with European mariners. They touched on the coast to refresh water barrels, barter for ... More

The Archaeology of Gender in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Lyn Wadley

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Archaeology, Women’s History
The meaning and context of gender is contested even in the 21st century. No generalizations about gender are applicable through time or across space. Even where gender roles are defined by ... More

The Archaeology of the Swahili World  

Stephanie Wynne-Jones

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
East Africa and Indian Ocean
The east African coast and its offshore islands are home to the Swahili cultural tradition. This is a fascinating and long-lived urban tradition that has been synonymous with this coast for ... More

Archaeozoology: Methods  

Veerle Linseele

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Archaeology, Historiography and Methods
Archaeozoology is the study of animal remains, mainly bones and other hard parts, from archaeological sites. It contributes to a more complete understanding of various aspects ... More

Archival and Digital Sources on Unfree Labor in Northern Nigeria  

Mohammed Bashir Salau

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Slavery and Slave Trade, West Africa
Unfree labor in Northern Nigeria is a subject of interest to an increasing number of scholars. The National Archives Kaduna (NAK) and other repositories in Northern Nigeria and elsewhere ... More

Atlantic Slavery and the Slave Trade: History and Historiography  

Daniel B. Domingues da Silva and Philip Misevich

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Over the past six decades, the historiography of Atlantic slavery and the slave trade has shown remarkable growth and sophistication. Historians have marshalled a vast array of sources and ... More

Baartman, Sara  

Clifton Crais

Online publication date:
May 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Women’s History
Sara Baartman (also known as Saartje, Saartjie, or Sarah), a South African woman, was widely known on stage in England and France in the early 19th century, and subsequently internationally ... More

Banda, Hastings Kamuzu  

Joey Power

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Central Africa, Political History
Dr. Hastings Kamuzu Banda was an American- and British-trained medical doctor born in Nyasaland at the turn of the last century. He became leader of the Nyasaland African Congress (NAC) ... More

The Bantu Expansion  

Koen Bostoen

The Bantu Expansion stands for the concurrent dispersal of Bantu languages and Bantu-speaking people from an ancestral homeland situated in the Grassfields region in the borderland between ... More

Ben M’rad, Bchira  

Lilia Labidi

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
North Africa and the Gulf, Women’s History
The Tunisian Bchira Ben M’rad (1913–1993), a feminist for some, a reformist for others, was a significant figure in Tunisia in the first half of the 20th century in the struggles for ... More

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