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Encounters Between Ethiopia and Europe, 1400–1660  

Matteo Salvadore

Online publication date:
May 2018
By the early 1400s, diplomatic representatives and pilgrims from the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia had traveled to the Italian peninsula for political and religious reasons. In doing so, ... More

Environmental History  

Emmanuel Kreike

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Environmental history highlights the dynamic interaction between the physical environment and human society, respectively framed as nature and culture. Attributing agency to the environment ... More

Ethiopia in the Nineteenth Century  

Teshale Tibebu

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
The history of Ethiopia during the 19th century involved three fundamental processes: (1) the Zämänä Mäsafənt (Era of Princes) and its coming to an end under Kassa Häylu, later Emperor ... More

The Ethiopian Red Terror  

Jacob Wiebel

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
The Red Terror was a period of intense political and inter-communal violence in revolutionary Ethiopia during the late 1970s. This violence erupted two years after the revolution of 1974 ... More

Ethnicity in Africa  

Gabrielle Lynch

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Among today’s scholars there is a near consensus that precolonial African identities were relatively fluid, permeable, overlapping, and complex; that ethnic identities are socially ... More

Ethnographic Analogy in Archaeology: Methodological Insights from Southern Africa  

Mark McGranaghan

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Analogical arguments are central to and pervasive within archaeological discourse. Within these arguments, ethnographic analogies are often seen as being particularly problematic exercises ... More

Exploring Present Pasts: Popular Arts as Historical Sources  

Bogumil Jewsiewicki and Allen F. Roberts

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Cultural History, Historiography and Methods
To incorporate sub-Saharan senses of artistic production and practice into scholarly reconstruction of African pasts, distance must be sought from deeply embedded positivist notions of Art, ... More

Farming and Herding in Eastern Africa: Archaeological and Historical Perspectives  

Freda Nkirote M'Mbogori

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
The inception of agriculture in eastern Africa is a major topic of discussion among Africanist archaeologists, although very sparse evidence exists. Questions range from whether ... More

Film and Video as Historical Sources  

Mahir Şaul

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Films and video dramas can become historical sources in different ways. One of them is the use of the filmic images as a source for learning about the physical environment, the layout and ... More

Film, Radio, and Society in Colonial and Postcolonial Africa  

James Genova

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Cultural History, Image of Africa
From the period of the “Scramble for Africa” in the 1880s to the era of decolonization that began in the 1950s, culture and media played essential roles in constructing images of the ... More

Food and Diet: Methods  

Liza Gijanto

Online publication date:
May 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Historiography and Methods
Studies of food and diet across the African continent primarily include the shift from foraging, or hunting and gathering, to plant and animal domestication. Many researchers have ... More

Food Production in the Forest Zone of West Africa: Archaeological and Historical Perspectives  

Richard T. Chia and A. Catherine D'Andrea

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Archaeology, Economic History, West Africa
Recent narratives on the origin of food production in the West African forest zone have replaced earlier diffusion-based models with viewpoints that emphasize the diversity of sources for ... More

Forest History  

Christopher Conte

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Natural and human histories intersect in Africa’s forested regions. Forests of several types cover the continent’s mountains, savannas, and river basins. Most current classifications divide ... More

Frantz Fanon  

Christopher J. Lee

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Intellectual History, North Africa and the Gulf
Frantz Fanon was born in 1925 on the Caribbean island of Martinique. He died in 1961 from leukemia in a hospital outside Washington, DC. Trained as a psychiatrist, Fanon achieved fame as a ... More

Free French Africa  

Eric Jennings

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
North Africa and the Gulf
Free French Africa was the part of the French empire that came under the control of General Charles de Gaulle’s movement. From 1940 to 1943, it encompassed French Equatorial Africa and ... More

Funmilayo (Anikulapo) Ransome-Kuti: Nigerian Anti-Imperialist, Humanist, and Feminist Activist  

Cheryl Johnson-Odim

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Political History, Women’s History
In the late 19th and 20th centuries, massive numbers of African women, poor and rich, educated and uneducated, were deeply involved in resistance to European colonialism/imperialism and ... More

The Gambia  

Bala Saho

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Oral history tells of an indigenous trader who lived in the middle belts of the River Gambia known as Kambi. His wealth and popularity transcended boundaries, villages, and communities from ... More

Genetics and Southern African History  

Francesco Montinaro and Cristian Capelli

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Southern Africa
Southern Africa’s past is constellated by a series of demographic events tracing back to the dawn of our species, approximately 300,000 years ago. The intricate pattern of population ... More

Girlhood in Africa  

Sarah Bellows-Blakely

Online publication date:
Mar 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Women’s History
There is no singular or universal experience of girlhood in Africa. Conceptions of childhood, youth, generation, gender, and sexuality have differed across the continent and around the ... More

Guns in Africa  

Felix Brahm

Online publication date:
Jul 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Military History
Guns have loomed large in many African societies since early modern times. This has much to do with their military and economic potential, but also with the influential social life they ... More

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