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The Ottomans in Northeast Africa  

A. C. S. Peacock

In the mid-16th century, the Ottoman empire expanded to encompass parts of the modern Sudan, Eritrea, and the Ethiopian borderlands, forming the Ottoman province of Habeş. The Ottomans ... More

Ozurumba Mbanaso or King Jaja of Opobo  

Joseph Davey

Between 1800 and 1900, West Africa’s coastal states struggled to maintain autonomy in the face of imperial overtures from European trade partners. Simultaneously, these states coped with ... More

Paleoenvironmental Science: Methods  

David K. Wright

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Understanding paleoclimates has been an important component of archaeological research for over a century. Human settlement, mobility, and subsistence activities are predicated on ... More

Pentecostalism in Africa  

Nimi Wariboko

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The literature on African Pentecostalism is relatively vast and growing rapidly, but it is, unfortunately, caught in the circle of trying to define what African Pentecostalism is, and how ... More

Philosophical Perspectives on the History of African Socialism  

Ajume H. Wingo

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The heyday of African socialism as the animating force behind African political developments has passed. Yet, like other political doctrines of great revolutionary movements, its name and ... More

Photographs as Sources in African History  

Robert Gordon and Jonatan Kurzwelly

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Much has changed since photographs were used simply as apt illustrations and depictions of reality. The field of visual history has now become an important and legitimate area of rigorous ... More

Political Complexity North and South of the Zambezi River  

Maria Schoeman

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Complexity flourished in several regions north and south of the Zambezi during the second millennium ce. Four of these localities are explored here: the Greater Shashe-Limpopo region, the ... More

The Politics of Decolonization in French and British West Africa  

Frederick Cooper

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
At the end of World War II, Britain and France tried to find new bases for the legitimacy of empire. Their hesitant moves created openings that African political movements exploited. ... More

Popular Politics in East Africa from Precolonial to Postcolonial Times  

James R. Brennan

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Sep 2017
Popular politics have influenced the development of East Africa’s political institutions from roughly two millennia ago up to contemporary times. Among the discernible political dynamics ... More

Portuguese Colonialism in Africa  

Miguel Bandeira Jerónimo

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
The Portuguese colonial empire was the first and the last European empire overseas, from the conquest of Ceuta (1415), in Morocco, North Africa, until the formal handover of Macau to the ... More

Postcolonial States and Societies in West Africa  

Ebenezer Obadare

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Postcolonial West African history can be understood in terms of transitions across three successive eras: a post-independence era of high nationalism; the military era, characterized by ... More

Pottery chaînes opératoires as Historical Documents  

Olivier P. Gosselain

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
Technical processes—or chaînes opératoires—are heterogeneous cultural aggregates articulating raw materials, tools, knowledge, representations, and agents. The nature and arrangement of ... More

Precolonial History of South Sudan  

Stephanie Beswick

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of African History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Precolonial Metallurgy and Mining across Africa  

Shadreck Chirikure

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Since their inception, precolonial mining and metallurgy gradually became essential social, technological, and even politico-economic pillars of African communities of varying time ... More

Primary Historical Sources in Archaeology: Methods  

Rachel King

While there are a handful of defined methods for working with primary historical sources in archaeology, few archaeologists take these as their main points of departure or rely upon them ... More

Prisoners, Ransoms, and Slavery in the Maghrib  

Russell Hopley

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The topic of prisoners, ransoms, and slavery in the Maghrib (that is, the lands of the Islamic west—the area that today encompasses North Africa, and historically, also the regions of ... More

Quantitative Methods and Economic Statistical Sources for African History  

Morten Jerven

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
The mode of enquiry in African economic history has changed quite radically in recent years. In 1987, Patrick Manning surveyed practices and databases in African economic history and ... More

Reading the Archives as Sources  

David M. Gordon

Archives used in Africanist historical research include those of the colonial state, postcolonial national archives, missionary archives, personal papers, political party archives, and the ... More

Rock Art Research Methods  

Jeremy Hollmann

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Rock art is an archaeological resource with the potential to reconstruct aspects of the ideologies of prehistoric societies. Research methods are distinguished here from theoretical, ... More

The 1924 Revolution in Sudan  

Elena Vezzadini

The 1924 Revolution marked the first time in Sudanese history a nationalist ideology became the language of politics and was successfully employed to mobilize the masses. It was a part of ... More

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