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Post-World War II Asian American Suburban Culture  

Mark Padoongpatt

Published Online:
Nov 2018
Substantial numbers of Asian Americans and Asian immigrants moved into suburbs across the United States after World War II, bringing distinctive everyday lifeways, identities, worldviews, ... More

Poverty in the Modern American City  

Ella Howard

American cities expanded during the late 19th century, as industrial growth was fueled by the arrival of millions of immigrants and migrants. Poverty rates escalated, overwhelming existing ... More

Print, the Press, and the American Revolution  

Robert G. Parkinson

According to David Ramsay, one of the first historians of the American Revolution, “in establishing American independence, the pen and press had merit equal to that of the sword.” Because ... More

Professional Team Sports in the United States  

Steven A. Riess

Published Online:
Feb 2017
Professional sports teams are athletic organizations comprising talented, expert players hired by club owners whose revenues originally derived from admission fees charged to spectators ... More

Progressives and Progressivism in an Era of Reform  

Maureen A. Flanagan

The decades from the 1890s into the 1920s produced reform movements in the United States that resulted in significant changes to the country’s social, political, cultural, and economic ... More

Propaganda in the History of U.S. Foreign Relations  

Laura A. Belmonte

From the revolutionary era to the post-9/11 years, public and private actors have attempted to shape U.S. foreign relations by persuading mass audiences to embrace particular policies, ... More

Prostitution in America  

Jessica Pliley

Published Online:
Nov 2018
Commercialized sexuality became a prominent feature of American urban settings in the early 19th century when young men migrated far from the watchful eyes of family as soldiers and ... More

Protestantism in America  

John Fea

Published Online:
May 2017
It is virtually impossible to understand the history of the American experience without Protestantism. The theological and religious descendants of the Protestant Reformation arrived in ... More

Public Authorities  

Gail Radford

Public authorities are agencies created by governments to engage directly in the economy for public purposes. They differ from standard agencies in that they operate outside the ... More

Public Housing in Urban America  

D. Bradford Hunt

Public housing emerged during the New Deal as a progressive effort to end the scourge of dilapidated housing in American cities. Reformers argued that the private market had failed to ... More

Public Lands and Their Administration  

Adam M. Sowards

Published Online:
Aug 2017
For more than a century after the republic’s founding in the 1780s, American law reflected the ideal that the commons—the public domain—should be turned into private property. As Americans ... More

Public Opinion and US Foreign Relations  

Nicholas J. Cull

Published Online:
Jun 2019
Public opinion has been part of US foreign relations in two key ways. As one would expect in a democracy, the American public has shaped the foreign policy of its government. No less ... More

Public Sector Unionism  

Joseph E. Hower

Government employees are an essential part of the early-21st-century labor movement in the United States. Teachers, firefighters, and police officers are among the most heavily unionized ... More

Public Space in North American Cities  

Jessica Ellen Sewell

Published Online:
Nov 2018
From 1800 to 2000, cities grew enormously, and saw an expansion of public spaces to serve the varied needs of a diverse population living in ever more cramped and urban circumstances. ... More

Puerto Ricans in the United States  

Lorrin Thomas

Puerto Rican migrants have resided in the United States since before the Spanish-Cuban-American War of 1898, when the United States took possession of the island of Puerto Rico as part of ... More

The Puritans  

Sarah Rivett

Published Online:
Aug 2016
The Puritans were a group of people loosely defined through their shared adherence to the reformed theological tradition, largely following the work of John Calvin. Beginning in the 16th ... More

Race and the Origins of Plantation Slavery  

Justin Roberts

Published Online:
Mar 2016
“Twenty and odd” Africans arrived in Virginia aboard a Dutch vessel in 1619 shortly after permanent colonization of the English Americas began. There has been significant academic debate ... More

Race, Gender, and Sex Education in 20th-Century America  

Courtney Q. Shah

Published Online:
Aug 2017
A concerted movement to promote sex education in America emerged in the early 20th century as part of a larger public health movement that also responded to the previous century’s concerns ... More

Race, Gender, and the Making of New Netherland  

Susanah Shaw Romney

Published Online:
Mar 2015
On the mid-Atlantic coast between 1624 and 1664, the Dutch developed a successful and expansive colony, one that depended on particular interactions among women and men from American, ... More

Racial Diversity and Suburban Politics in 20th-Century Los Angeles  

Hillary Jenks

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

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