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The 1950s  

Jennifer Delton

Published Online:
Oct 2015
The 1950s have typically been seen as a complacent, conservative time between the end of World War II and the radical 1960s, when anticommunism and the Cold War subverted reform and ... More

The Salem Witch Trials  

Emerson W. Baker

The Salem Witch Trials are one of the best known, most studied, and most important events in early American history. The afflictions started in Salem Village (present-day Danvers), ... More

Same-Sex Love among Early American Women  

Rachel Hope Cleves

Published Online:
Jul 2018
The task of recovering the history of same-sex love among early American women faces daunting challenges of definition and sources. Modern conceptions of same-sex sexuality did not exist ... More

The 1930s and the Road to World War II  

Steven Casey

The United States was extremely reluctant to get drawn into the wars that erupted in Asia in 1937 and Europe in 1939. Deeply disillusioned with the experience of World War I, when the ... More

Schools in US Cities  

Ansley T. Erickson

“Urban infrastructure” calls to mind railways, highways, and sewer systems. Yet the school buildings—red brick, limestone, or concrete, low-slung, turreted, or glass-fronted—that hold and ... More

The Scopes Trial  

Adam R. Shaprio

Published Online:
Aug 2016
The 1925 Scopes trial was a widely followed court case in Dayton, Tennessee, that attracted the attention of the nation. A prosecution against a schoolteacher charged with violating ... More

Seaport Cities in North America, 1600–1800  

Emma Hart

Published Online:
Nov 2018
Since many North American indigenous societies also built and inhabited towns, America was not an entirely rural continent before the arrival of Europeans. Nevertheless, when Europeans set ... More

The Separation of Church and State in the United States  

Steven K. Green

Separation of church and state has long been viewed as a cornerstone of American democracy. At the same time, the concept has remained highly controversial in the popular culture and law. ... More

Service Economies and the American Postindustrial City, 1950–Present  

Patrick Vitale

In the seventy years since the end of World War II (1939–1945), postindustrialization—the exodus of manufacturing and growth of finance and services—has radically transformed the economy ... More

Sexuality and American Religion  

Kathryn Lofton

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Both sexuality and religion are terms as vexatious to define as they can be alluring to pursue. In the contemporary period, figuring out one’s sexual feelings, identity, and preferences ... More

Sherman’s March in American History and Cultural Memory  

Anne Sarah Rubin

Published Online:
Oct 2017
Sherman’s March, more accurately known as the Georgia and Carolinas Campaigns, cut a swath across three states in 1864–1865. It was one of the most significant campaigns of the war, making ... More

The Significance of Society in the 18th Century: Conversations about Governance  

Andrew Cayton

Published Online:
Sep 2015
The American Revolution was an episode in a transatlantic outcry against the corruption of the British balance of power and liberty institutionalized in the Glorious Revolution of ... More

The Sit-In Movement  

Christopher W. Schmidt

Published Online:
Jul 2018
One of the most significant protest campaigns of the civil rights era, the lunch counter sit-in movement began on February 1, 1960 when four young African American men sat down at the ... More

Skyscrapers and Tall Buildings  

Elihu Rubin

The tall building—the most popular and conspicuous emblem of the modern American city—stands as an index of economic activity, civic aspirations, and urban development. Enmeshed in the ... More

Slavery in North American Cities  

Leslie Harris

The patterns of urban slavery in North American and pre-Civil War US cities reveal the ways in which individual men and women, as well as businesses, institutions, and governmental bodies ... More

Sleeping with an Elephant: Canadian-American Relations, 1759–2019  

Robert Bothwell

Published Online:
Jun 2019
Canada has sometimes been called the United States’ attic: a useful feature, but one easily forgotten. Of all countries, it has historically resembled the United States the most closely, ... More

Smuggling in Early America  

Christian J. Koot

Published Online:
Jan 2016
Smuggling was a regular feature of the economy of colonial British America in the 17th and 18th centuries. Though the very nature of illicit commerce means that the extent of this trade is ... More

Social Gospel and the American Working Class  

Janine Giordano Drake

Published Online:
Oct 2017
The term “Social Gospel” was coined by ministers and other well-meaning American Protestants with the intention of encouraging the urban and rural poor to understand that Christ cared ... More

Social Science and Foreign Affairs  

Joy Rohde

Since the social sciences began to emerge as scholarly disciplines in the last quarter of the 19th century, they have frequently offered authoritative intellectual frameworks that have ... More

The Society of American Indians  

K. Tsianina Lomawaima

In 1911, a group of American Indian intellectuals organized what would become known as the Society of American Indians, or SAI. SAI members convened in annual meetings between 1911 and ... More

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