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The Long War on Drugs  

Anne L. Foster

Published Online:
Jun 2017
The beginning of modern war on drugs in the United States is commonly credited to President Richard Nixon, who evoked fears of crime, degenerate youth, and foreign drugs to garner support ... More

Theodore Roosevelt and US Foreign Relations  

John Thompson

Published Online:
Feb 2019
Theodore Roosevelt played a seminal role in the rise of the United States to Great Power status at the turn of the 20th century and in debates about World War I and the League of Nations. ... More

The Rise of Chinese Food in the United States  

Yong Chen

Published Online:
Jun 2017
The “Chinese 49’ers” who arrived in the United States a decade before the American Civil War constituted the first large wave of Asian migrants to America and transplanted the first Asian ... More

The Socialist Party of America, 1900–1929  

Elizabeth McKillen

One of the pervasive myths about the United States is that it has never had a socialist movement comparable to other industrialized nations. Yet in the early 20th century a vibrant ... More

The Special Relationship: Anglo-U.S. Relations since 1776  

Ted R. Bromund

The Special Relationship is a term used to describe the close relations between the United States and the United Kingdom. It applies particularly to the governmental realms of foreign, ... More

The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Black Freedom Struggle of the 1960s  

Charles M. Payne

The only youth-led national civil rights organization in the 1960s in the United States, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), grew out of sit-ins, with the base of its ... More

The United States and International Terrorism  

Mary S. Barton and David M. Wight

The US government’s perception of and response to international terrorism has undergone momentous shifts since first focusing on the issue in the early 20th century. The global rise of ... More

The United States Civil War in an Atlantic Context  

Don H. Doyle

America’s Civil War became part of a much larger international crisis as European powers, happy to see the experiment in self-government fail in America’s “Great Republic,” took advantage ... More

Thomas Jefferson and US Foreign Relations  

Francis D. Cogliano

Thomas Jefferson was a key architect of early American foreign policy. He had a clear vision of the place of the new republic in the world, which he articulated in a number of writings and ... More

Tourism in the History of U.S. Foreign Relations  

Blake C. Scott

Tourism is so deep-seated in the history of U.S. foreign relations we seem to have taken its presence for granted. Millions of American tourists have traveled abroad, yet one can count ... More

Transcendentalism  

David M. Robinson

Published Online:
Aug 2016
New England transcendentalism is the first significant literary movement in American history, notable principally for the influential works of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller, and ... More

The United States and Afghanistan, 1978–2018  

Paul D. Miller

Published Online:
Jan 2019
Afghanistan has twice been thrust front and center of US national security concerns in the past half-century: first, during the Soviet-Afghan War, when Afghanistan served as a proxy for ... More

The United States and China  

Gregg A. Brazinsky

Published Online:
Jun 2019
Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, America’s relationship with China ran the gamut from friendship and alliance to enmity and competition. Americans have long believed in China’s ... More

The United States and the League of Nations  

Charlie Laderman

Although the League of Nations was the first permanent organization established with the purpose of maintaining international peace, it built on the work of a series of 19th-century ... More

The United States and Neutrality/Nonalignment  

Robert Rakove

For almost a century and a half, successive American governments adopted a general policy of neutrality on the world stage, eschewing involvement in European conflicts and, after the Quasi ... More

The United States and Southeast Asia  

Kenton Clymer

The U.S. relationship with Southeast Asia has always reflected the state of U.S. interactions with the three major powers that surround the region: Japan, China, and, to a lesser extent, ... More

The United States and Southern Africa  

R. Joseph Parrott

The United States never sought to build an empire in Africa in the 19th and 20th centuries, as did European nations from Britain to Portugal. However, economic, ideological, and cultural ... More

The United States and the “Troubles” in Northern Ireland, 1967–1998  

James Cooper

The relationship between the United States and the island of Ireland combines nostalgic sentimentality and intervention in the sectarian conflict known as the “Troubles.” Irish migration ... More

The United States and the United Nations  

Michelle Getchell

The United States was heavily involved in creating the United Nations in 1945 and drafting its charter. The United States continued to exert substantial clout in the organization after its ... More

The United States at the End of the Cold War, 1989–1993  

James Graham Wilson

The Cold War may have ended on the evening of November 9, 1989, when East German border guards opened up checkpoints and allowed their fellow citizens to stream into West Berlin; it ... More

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