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The United States Department of Agriculture, 1900–1945  

Anne Effland

Published Online:
Apr 2019
President Abraham Lincoln signed the law that established the Department of Agriculture in 1862 and in 1889, President Grover Cleveland signed the law that raised the Department to Cabinet ... More

United States Foreign Relations, 1775–1815  

Lindsay M. Chervinsky

From 1775 to 1815, empire served as the most pressing foreign relationship problem for the United States. Would the new nation successfully break free from the British Empire? What would ... More

The United States in the 1920s  

Paul V. Murphy

Published Online:
Feb 2018
Americans grappled with the implications of industrialization, technological progress, urbanization, and mass immigration with startling vigor and creativity in the 1920s even as wide ... More

The United States–Mexico Border  

C. J. Alvarez

The region that today constitutes the United States–Mexico borderland has evolved through various systems of occupation over thousands of years. Beginning in time immemorial, the land was ... More

The United States, OPEC, and International Oil  

Gregory Brew

After World War II, the United States backed multinational private oil companies known as the “Seven Sisters”—five American companies (including Standard Oil of New Jersey and Texaco), one ... More

United States Strategy in the Asia Pacific  

Michael R. Anderson

American strategy in the Asia Pacific over the past two centuries has been marked by strong and often contradictory impulses. On the one hand, the western Pacific has served as a fertile ... More

United States Vagrancy Laws  

Risa L. Goluboff and Adam Sorensen

Published Online:
Dec 2018
The crime of vagrancy has deep historical roots in American law and legal culture. Originating in 16th-century England, vagrancy laws came to the New World with the colonists and soon ... More

United States Foreign Economic Aid  

Jeffrey F. Taffet

In the first half of the 20th century, and more actively in the post–World War II period, the United States government used economic aid programs to advance its foreign policy interests. ... More

Universities and Information Centers in U.S. Cities  

LaDale Winling

The transformation of post-industrial American life in the late 20th and early 21st centuries includes several economically robust metropolitan centers that stand as new models of urban ... More

Universities in America since 1945  

Christopher P. Loss

Until World War II, American universities were widely regarded as good but not great centers of research and learning. This changed completely in the press of wartime, when the federal ... More

Urban Destruction during the Civil War  

Megan Kate Nelson

During the American Civil War, Union and Confederate commanders made the capture and destruction of enemy cities a central feature of their military campaigns. They did so for two reasons. ... More

Urban Exceptionalism in the American South  

David Goldfield

Published Online:
Jul 2018
While colonial New Englanders gathered around town commons, settlers in the Southern colonials sprawled out on farms and plantations. The distinctions had more to do with the varying ... More

Industrialization and Urbanization in the United States, 1880–1929  

Jonathan Rees

Published Online:
Jul 2016
Between 1880 and 1929, industrialization and urbanization expanded in the United States faster than ever before. Industrialization, meaning manufacturing in factory settings using machines ... More

Urban Politics in the United States before 1940  

James J. Connolly

Published Online:
May 2016
The convergence of mass politics and the growth of cities in 19th-century America produced sharp debates over the character of politics in urban settings. The development of what came to ... More

Urban Politics in the United States since 1945  

Lily Geismer

Published Online:
Apr 2016
Urban politics provides a means to understand the major political and economic trends and transformations of the last seventy years in American cities. The growth of the federal ... More

Urban Riots and Rioting in the United States, 1800–2000  

Alex Elkins

Published Online:
Nov 2018
Rioting in the United States since 1800 has adhered to three basic traditions: regulating communal morality, defending community from outside threats, and protesting government abuse of ... More

Urban Tourism in the U.S. since 1800  

J. Mark Souther

Published Online:
Feb 2018
Prior to the railroad age, American cities generally lacked reputations as tourist travel destinations. As railroads created fast, reliable, and comfortable transportation in the 19th ... More

U.S.-Argentine Relations  

Jennifer Hoyt

Relations between the United States and Argentina can be best described as a cautious embrace punctuated by moments of intense frustration. Although never the center of U.S.–Latin American ... More

The US, Australia, and New Zealand since World War II  

Roger Bell

Published Online:
Jun 2019
The war against Japan (1941–1945) gave rise to a uniquely enduring alliance between the United States, Australia, and New Zealand. Rooted in overlapping geopolitical interests and shared ... More

U.S.-Bolivia Relations  

James F. Siekmeier

Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, U.S. officials often viewed Bolivia as both a potential “test case” for U.S. economic foreign policy and a place where Washington’s broad visions ... More

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