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Transcendentalism  

David M. Robinson

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
New England transcendentalism is the first significant literary movement in American history, notable principally for the influential works of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller, and ... More

The United States and Afghanistan, 1978–2018  

Paul D. Miller

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Afghanistan has twice been thrust front and center of US national security concerns in the past half-century: first, during the Soviet-Afghan War, when Afghanistan served as a proxy for ... More

The United States and China  

Gregg A. Brazinsky

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, America’s relationship with China ran the gamut from friendship and alliance to enmity and competition. Americans have long believed in China’s ... More

The United States and the League of Nations  

Charlie Laderman

Although the League of Nations was the first permanent organization established with the purpose of maintaining international peace, it built on the work of a series of 19th-century ... More

The United States and Neutrality/Nonalignment  

Robert Rakove

For almost a century and a half, successive American governments adopted a general policy of neutrality on the world stage, eschewing involvement in European conflicts and, after the Quasi ... More

The United States and Southeast Asia  

Kenton Clymer

The U.S. relationship with Southeast Asia has always reflected the state of U.S. interactions with the three major powers that surround the region: Japan, China, and, to a lesser extent, ... More

The United States and Southern Africa  

R. Joseph Parrott

The United States never sought to build an empire in Africa in the 19th and 20th centuries, as did European nations from Britain to Portugal. However, economic, ideological, and cultural ... More

The United States and the “Troubles” in Northern Ireland, 1967–1998  

James Cooper

The relationship between the United States and the island of Ireland combines nostalgic sentimentality and intervention in the sectarian conflict known as the “Troubles.” Irish migration ... More

The United States and the United Nations  

Michelle Getchell

The United States was heavily involved in creating the United Nations in 1945 and drafting its charter. The United States continued to exert substantial clout in the organization after its ... More

The United States at the End of the Cold War, 1989–1993  

James Graham Wilson

The Cold War may have ended on the evening of November 9, 1989, when East German border guards opened up checkpoints and allowed their fellow citizens to stream into West Berlin; it ... More

The United States Department of Agriculture, 1900–1945  

Anne Effland

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
President Abraham Lincoln signed the law that established the Department of Agriculture in 1862 and in 1889, President Grover Cleveland signed the law that raised the Department to Cabinet ... More

United States Foreign Relations, 1775–1815  

Lindsay M. Chervinsky

From 1775 to 1815, empire served as the most pressing foreign relationship problem for the United States. Would the new nation successfully break free from the British Empire? What would ... More

The United States in the 1920s  

Paul V. Murphy

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Americans grappled with the implications of industrialization, technological progress, urbanization, and mass immigration with startling vigor and creativity in the 1920s even as wide ... More

The United States–Mexico Border  

C. J. Alvarez

The region that today constitutes the United States–Mexico borderland has evolved through various systems of occupation over thousands of years. Beginning in time immemorial, the land was ... More

The United States, OPEC, and International Oil  

Gregory Brew

After World War II, the United States backed multinational private oil companies known as the “Seven Sisters”—five American companies (including Standard Oil of New Jersey and Texaco), one ... More

United States Strategy in the Asia Pacific  

Michael R. Anderson

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
American strategy in the Asia Pacific over the past two centuries has been marked by strong and often contradictory impulses. On the one hand, the western Pacific has served as a fertile ... More

United States Vagrancy Laws  

Risa L. Goluboff and Adam Sorensen

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
The crime of vagrancy has deep historical roots in American law and legal culture. Originating in 16th-century England, vagrancy laws came to the New World with the colonists and soon ... More

United States Foreign Economic Aid  

Jeffrey F. Taffet

In the first half of the 20th century, and more actively in the post–World War II period, the United States government used economic aid programs to advance its foreign policy interests. ... More

Universities and Information Centers in U.S. Cities  

LaDale Winling

The transformation of post-industrial American life in the late 20th and early 21st centuries includes several economically robust metropolitan centers that stand as new models of urban ... More

Universities in America since 1945  

Christopher P. Loss

Until World War II, American universities were widely regarded as good but not great centers of research and learning. This changed completely in the press of wartime, when the federal ... More

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