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Urban Riots and Rioting in the United States, 1800–2000  

Alex Elkins

Rioting in the United States since 1800 has adhered to three basic traditions: regulating communal morality, defending community from outside threats, and protesting government abuse of ... More

Urban Tourism in the U.S. since 1800  

J. Mark Souther

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Prior to the railroad age, American cities generally lacked reputations as tourist travel destinations. As railroads created fast, reliable, and comfortable transportation in the 19th ... More

U.S.-Argentine Relations  

Jennifer Hoyt

Relations between the United States and Argentina can be best described as a cautious embrace punctuated by moments of intense frustration. Although never the center of U.S.–Latin American ... More

The US, Australia, and New Zealand since World War II  

Roger Bell

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
The war against Japan (1941–1945) gave rise to a uniquely enduring alliance between the United States, Australia, and New Zealand. Rooted in overlapping geopolitical interests and shared ... More

U.S.-Bolivia Relations  

James F. Siekmeier

Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, U.S. officials often viewed Bolivia as both a potential “test case” for U.S. economic foreign policy and a place where Washington’s broad visions ... More

US-Brazil Relations  

James Cameron

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
Although never enemies, the United States and Brazil have a complex history stemming primarily from the significant imbalance in power between the Western Hemisphere’s two largest nations. ... More

US-Caribbean Relations  

Tyson Reeder

The United States has shared an intricate and turbulent history with Caribbean islands and nations since its inception. In its relations with the Caribbean, the United States has displayed ... More

US-Central America Relations  

Evan D. McCormick

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Since gaining independence in 1823, the states comprising Central America have had a front seat to the rise of the United States as a global superpower. Indeed, more so than anywhere else, ... More

US-Chilean Relations  

Patrick William Kelly

The relationship between Chile and the United States pivoted on the intertwined questions of how much political and economic influence Americans would exert over Chile and the degree to ... More

US Colonial Education in Guam, 1899–1950  

Alfred P. Flores

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Following the Spanish-American War of 1898 and the illegal overthrow and annexation of Hawai‘i, the US government transplanted its colonial education program to places in the Caribbean and ... More

US–Eastern Europe Relations  

Gregory F. Domber

Online publication date:
Nov 2019
American policy makers have rarely elevated Eastern Europe to the pinnacle of American grand strategy. The United States’ and Eastern Europe’s histories, however, are intertwined through ... More

US Foreign Policy and Decolonization  

Jason C. Parker

The decolonization of the European overseas empires had its intellectual roots early in the modern era, but its culmination occurred during the Cold War that loomed large in post-1945 ... More

US Foreign Policy in the Federalist Era  

Timothy C. Hemmis

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
The Federalist Era (1788–1800) witnessed the birth of the new American Constitution and ushered in a period of a strong Federal government headed by a president and a bicameral Congress. ... More

US Foreign Policy in the Reagan Presidency  

Simon Miles

Ronald Reagan’s foreign policy legacy remains hotly contested, and as new archival sources come to light, those debates are more likely to intensify than to recede into the background. In ... More

US Foreign Relations and International Law  

Brian Cuddy

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
International law is the set of rules, formally agreed by treaty or understood as customary, by which nation-states interact with each other in a form of international society. Across the ... More

U.S. Foreign Trade Policy from the Revolution to World War I  

Marc-William Palen

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Economic nationalism tended to dominate U.S. foreign trade policy throughout the long 19th century, from the end of the American Revolution to the beginning of World War I, owing to a ... More

U.S.-Franco Relations  

Kathryn C. Statler

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
U.S.-French relations are long-standing, complex, and primarily cooperative in nature. Various crises have punctuated long periods of stability in the alliance, but after each conflict the ... More

U.S. Imperialism, 1898–1914  

Robert McGreevey

U.S. imperialism took a variety of forms in the early 20th century, ranging from colonies in Puerto Rico and the Philippines to protectorates in Cuba, Panama, and other countries in Latin ... More

U.S. Indian Policy, 1783–1830  

David A. Nichols

Online publication date:
Oct 2015
From 1783 to 1830, American Indian policy reflected the new American nation-state’s desire to establish its own legitimacy and authority, by controlling Native American peoples and ... More

US-Indonesian Relations, 1949–1999  

Bradley Simpson

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
The US relationship with the Republic of Indonesia has gone through three distinct phases. From 1945 until 1966 Indonesia’s politics and foreign policy were driven by the imperatives of ... More

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