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US Foreign Relations and International Law  

Brian Cuddy

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
International law is the set of rules, formally agreed by treaty or understood as customary, by which nation-states interact with each other in a form of international society. Across the ... More

U.S. Foreign Trade Policy from the Revolution to World War I  

Marc-William Palen

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
Economic nationalism tended to dominate U.S. foreign trade policy throughout the long 19th century, from the end of the American Revolution to the beginning of World War I, owing to a ... More

U.S.-Franco Relations  

Kathryn C. Statler

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
U.S.-French relations are long-standing, complex, and primarily cooperative in nature. Various crises have punctuated long periods of stability in the alliance, but after each conflict the ... More

US Grand Strategy  

Thomas P. Cavanna

Online publication date:
Dec 2019
In its most general sense, grand strategy can be defined as the overarching vision that shapes a state’s foreign policy and approach to national security. Like any strategy, it requires ... More

U.S. Imperialism, 1898–1914  

Robert McGreevey

U.S. imperialism took a variety of forms in the early 20th century, ranging from colonies in Puerto Rico and the Philippines to protectorates in Cuba, Panama, and other countries in Latin ... More

U.S. Indian Policy, 1783–1830  

David A. Nichols

Online publication date:
Oct 2015
From 1783 to 1830, American Indian policy reflected the new American nation-state’s desire to establish its own legitimacy and authority, by controlling Native American peoples and ... More

US-Indonesian Relations, 1949–1999  

Bradley Simpson

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
The US relationship with the Republic of Indonesia has gone through three distinct phases. From 1945 until 1966 Indonesia’s politics and foreign policy were driven by the imperatives of ... More

U.S.-Iraq Relations, 1920–2003  

Brandon Wolfe-Hunnicutt

Oil played a central role in shaping US policy toward Iraq over the course of the 20th century. The United States first became involved in Iraq in the 1920s as part of an effort secure a ... More

U.S.-Israel Relations  

Olivia L. Sohns

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Moral, political, and strategic factors have contributed to the emergence and durability of the U.S.-Israel alliance. It took decades for American support for Israel to evolve from “a ... More

US-Japan Relations  

Jennifer M. Miller

Over the past 150 years, the United States and Japan have developed one of the United States’ most significant international relationships, marked by a potent mix of cooperation and ... More

US-Mexican Relations from Independence to the Present  

Renata Keller

Relations between the United States and Mexico have rarely been easy. Ever since the United States invaded its southern neighbor and seized half of its national territory in the 19th ... More

The U.S.–Mexico War  

Omar Valerio-Jiménez

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
The United States–Mexico War was the first war in which the United States engaged in a conflict with a foreign nation for the purpose of conquest. It was also the first conflict in which ... More

US-NATO Relations  

Susan Colbourn

On April 4, 1949, twelve nations signed the North Atlantic Treaty: the United States, Canada, Iceland, the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, Portugal, Italy, ... More

US Policymaking toward Congo/Zaire  

Lise Namikas

Online publication date:
May 2019
At the dawn of the 20th century, the region that would become the Democratic Republic of Congo fell to the brutal colonialism of Belgium’s King Leopold. Except for a brief moment when ... More

US Policy on Chemical and Biological Weapons  

Thomas I. Faith

Chemical and biological weapons represent two distinct types of munitions that share some common policy implications. While chemical weapons and biological weapons are different in terms ... More

US Relations with the Korean Peninsula  

David P. Fields

The United States and the Kingdom of Joseon (Korea) established formal diplomatic relations after signing a “Treaty of Peace, Commerce, Amity, and Navigation” in 1882. Relations between ... More

US-Saudi Relations  

Victor McFarland

The relationship between the United States and Saudi Arabia has shaped the history of both countries. Soon after the Saudi kingdom was founded in 1932, American geologists discovered ... More

US-Vietnam Relations  

Amanda C. Demmer

It is a truism in the history of warfare that the victors impose the terms for postwar peace. The Vietnam War, however, stands as an exception to this general rule. There can be no doubt ... More

US War in Iraq since 2003  

Timothy Andrews Sayle

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
In March 2003 US and coalition forces invaded Iraq. US forces withdrew in December 2008. Approximately 4,400 US troops were killed and 31,900 wounded during the initial invasion and the ... More

Vietnamese Americans in Little Saigon, California  

Phuong Nguyen

Little Saigon is the preferred name of Vietnamese refugee communities throughout the world. This article focuses primarily on the largest such community, in Orange County, California. This ... More

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