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US-NATO Relations  

Susan Colbourn

On April 4, 1949, twelve nations signed the North Atlantic Treaty: the United States, Canada, Iceland, the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, Portugal, Italy, ... More

US Policymaking toward Congo/Zaire  

Lise Namikas

Online publication date:
May 2019
At the dawn of the 20th century, the region that would become the Democratic Republic of Congo fell to the brutal colonialism of Belgium’s King Leopold. Except for a brief moment when ... More

US Policy on Chemical and Biological Weapons  

Thomas I. Faith

Chemical and biological weapons represent two distinct types of munitions that share some common policy implications. While chemical weapons and biological weapons are different in terms ... More

US-Vietnam Relations  

Amanda C. Demmer

It is a truism in the history of warfare that the victors impose the terms for postwar peace. The Vietnam War, however, stands as an exception to this general rule. There can be no doubt ... More

US War in Iraq since 2003  

Timothy Andrews Sayle

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
In March 2003 US and coalition forces invaded Iraq. US forces withdrew in December 2008. Approximately 4,400 US troops were killed and 31,900 wounded during the initial invasion and the ... More

Vietnamese Americans in Little Saigon, California  

Phuong Nguyen

Little Saigon is the preferred name of Vietnamese refugee communities throughout the world. This article focuses primarily on the largest such community, in Orange County, California. This ... More

The Vietnam War in American Memory  

Patrick Hagopian

The meaning of the Vietnam War has enduringly divided Americans in the postwar period. In part because the political splits opened up by the war made it an awkward topic for conversation, ... More

West Africa and US Foreign Relations  

Mark W. Deets

Since the founding of the United States of America, coinciding with the height of the Atlantic slave trade, U.S. officials have based their relations with West Africa primarily on economic ... More

West Virginia Mine Wars  

Lou Martin

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
In the early 20th century, West Virginia coal miners and mine operators fought a series of bloody battles that raged for two decades and prompted national debates over workers’ rights. ... More

White Internal Migration to American Cities, 1940–1980  

Chad Berry

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
An overview of Euro-American internal migration in the United States between 1940 and 1980 explores the overall population movement away from rural areas to cities and suburban areas. ... More

William McKinley and American Empire  

Michael Patrick Cullinane

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
Between 1897 and 1901 the administration of Republican President William McKinley transformed US foreign policy traditions and set a course for empire through interconnected economic ... More

William Seward and the Diplomacy of the Civil War  

Stephen P. Randolph

Best known as Abraham Lincoln’s secretary of state during the Civil War, William Henry Seward conducted full careers as a statesman, politician, and visionary of America’s future, both ... More

Wilsonianism  

Trygve Throntveit

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
An ungainly word, it has proven tenacious. Since the early Cold War, “Wilsonianism” has been employed by historians and analysts of US foreign policy to denote two historically related but ... More

The Woman Suffrage Movement in the United States  

Rebecca J. Mead

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Woman suffragists in the United States engaged in a sustained, difficult, and multigenerational struggle: seventy-two years elapsed between the Seneca Falls convention (1848) and the ... More

Women and Domesticity in the 1950s  

Wendy Gamber

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
Two images dominated popular portrayals of American women in the 1950s. One was the fictional June Cleaver, the female lead character in the popular television program, “Leave It to ... More

Women and Patriarchy in Early America, 1600–1800  

Kelly A. Ryan

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Patriarchy profoundly affected social relations and the daily lives of individuals in early America by supporting the elaboration of both racial differences and sexual hierarchies. ... More

Women and Politics in the Era of the American Revolution  

Sheila L. Skemp

Online publication date:
Jun 2016
Historians once assumed that, because women in the era of the American Revolution could not vote and showed very little interest in attaining the franchise, they were essentially ... More

Women and Religion in Colonial North America and the United States  

Catherine A. Brekus

Historically, women in colonial North America and the United States have been deeply influenced by their religious traditions. Even though world religions like Judaism, Christianity, ... More

Women and Reproduction in the United States during the 19th Century  

Shannon K. Withycombe

Throughout the 19th century, American women experienced vast changes regarding possibilities for childbirth and for enhancing or restricting fertility control. At the beginning of the ... More

Women and Sexual Assault in the United States, 1900–1940  

Mara Keire

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
In the United States, the history of sexual assault in the first half of the 20th century involves multiple contradictions between the ordinary, almost invisible accounts of women of all ... More

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