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The Civil Rights Movement in the Urban South  

Claudrena N. Harold

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
The civil rights movement in the urban South transformed the political, economic, and cultural landscape of post–World War II America. Between 1955 and 1968, African Americans and their ... More

Climate Change and the American City  

Andrew Hurley

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
American cities developed under relatively quiescent climatic conditions. A gradual rise in average global temperatures during the 19th and 20th centuries had a negligible impact on how ... More

Communist Party USA, 1919 to 1957  

James R. Barrett

The largest and most important revolutionary socialist organization in US history, the Communist Party USA was always a minority influence. It reached considerable size and influence, ... More

Company Towns in the United States  

Hardy Green

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Company towns can be defined as communities dominated by a single company, typically focused on one industry. Beyond that very basic definition, company towns varied in their ... More

The Constitution of the United States and Foreign Relations  

Martin S. Flaherty

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
Foreign relations under the US Constitution starts with the paradox, also seen in domestic matters, of relatively scant text providing guidance for the exercise of vast power. Founding ... More

Contagious Disease and Public Health in the American City  

Daniel Wilson

Contagious diseases have long posed a public health challenge for cities, going back to the ancient world. Diseases traveled over trade routes from one city to another. Cities were also ... More

Contraband Camps and the African American Refugee Experience during the Civil War  

Chandra Manning

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
In May 1861, three enslaved men who were determined not to be separated from their families ran to Fort Monroe, Virginia. Their flight led to the phenomenon of Civil War contraband camps. ... More

Counterinsurgency Warfare in Theory and Practice  

Celeste Gventer

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The Creek Confederacy  

Andrew Frank

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The Creek Confederacy was a loose coalition of ethnically and linguistically diverse Native American towns that slowly coalesced as a political entity in the 18th and early 19th centuries. ... More

The Cuban Revolution  

Michael J. Bustamante

The Cuban Revolution transformed the largest island nation of the Caribbean into a flashpoint of the Cold War. After overthrowing US-backed ruler Fulgencio Batista in early 1959, Fidel ... More

Daily Life in the Jim Crow South, 1900–1945  

Jennifer Ritterhouse

Online publication date:
May 2018
Distinctive patterns of daily life defined the Jim Crow South. Contrary to many observers’ emphasis on de jure segregation—meaning racial separation demanded by law—neither law nor the ... More

DDT and Pesticides  

Frederick Rowe Davis

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The history of DDT and pesticides in America is overshadowed by four broad myths. The first myth suggests that DDT was the first insecticide deployed widely by American farmers. The second ... More

Death in Colonial North America: Cross-Cultural Encounters  

Erik R. Seeman

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Death is universal yet is experienced in culturally specific ways. Because of this, when individuals in colonial North America encountered others from different cultural backgrounds, they ... More

Deindustrialization and the Postindustrial City, 1950–Present  

Chloe E. Taft

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
The process of urban deindustrialization has been long and uneven. Even the terms “deindustrial” and “postindustrial” are contested; most cities continue to host manufacturing on some ... More

Dockworkers in America  

Peter Cole

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
The history of dockworkers in America is as fascinating and important as it is unfamiliar. Those who worked along the shore loading and unloading ships played an invaluable role in an ... More

Domestic Workers in U.S. History  

Vanessa May

Online publication date:
May 2017
Domestic work was, until 1940, the largest category of women’s paid labor. Despite the number of women who performed domestic labor for pay, the wages and working conditions were often ... More

Drug Subcultures in the American City, 1800–present  

Chris Elcock

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
The use of illicit drugs in US cities led to the development of important subcultures with shared practices, codes, discourses, and values. From the 19th century onward, American city ... More

Dwight D. Eisenhower and American Foreign Policy  

Richard V. Damms

Probably no American president was more thoroughly versed in matters of national security and foreign policy before entering office than Dwight David Eisenhower. As a young military ... More

Elementary and Secondary Education Policy, Post-1945  

Lawrence J. McAndrews

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Americans almost universally agree on the importance of education to the success of individuals and the strength of the nation. Yet they have long differed over the proper mission of ... More

Ellis Island Immigration Station  

Vincent J. Cannato

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
The Ellis Island Immigration Station, located in New York Harbor, opened in 1892 and closed in 1954. During peak years from the 1890s until the 1920s, the station processed an estimated ... More

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