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Environmental and Conservation Movements in Metropolitan America  

Robert R. Gioielli

By the late 19th century, American cities like Chicago and New York were marvels of the industrializing world. The shock urbanization of the previous quarter century, however, brought on a ... More

The Environment in the Atomic Age  

Rachel Rothschild

The development of nuclear technology had a profound influence on the global environment following the Second World War, with ramifications for scientific research, the modern ... More

Epidemics in Indian Country  

David S. Jones

Online publication date:
Dec 2014
Few developments in human history match the demographic consequences of the arrival of Europeans in the Americas. Between 1500 and 1900 the human populations of the Americas were ... More

The Equal Rights Amendment  

Robyn Muncy

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), designed to enshrine in the Constitution of the United States a guarantee of equal rights to women and men, has had a long and volatile history. When ... More

Ethnicity and US Neighborhoods  

Jordan Stanger-Ross

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
Ethnicity is a concept employed to understand the social, cultural, and political processes whereby immigrants and their children cease to be “foreign” and yet retain practices and ... More

Excavating Asian America in the Sacramento Delta  

Kelly N. Fong

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The Sacramento Delta is an agricultural region in northern California with deep historic significance for Asian Americans. Asian American laborers were instrumental to the development of ... More

Federal Indian Law  

N. Bruce Duthu

Online publication date:
Dec 2014
United States law recognizes American Indian tribes as distinct political bodies with powers of self-government. Their status as sovereign entities predates the formation of the United ... More

Federalism  

Alison L. LaCroix

Federalism refers to the constitutional and political structure of the United States of America, according to which political power is divided among multiple levels of ... More

The First Red Scare  

Adam J. Hodges

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
The first Red Scare, which occurred in 1919–1920, emerged out of longer clashes in the United States over the processes of industrialization, immigration, and urbanization as well as ... More

Food and Agriculture in the 20th and 21st Centuries  

Gabriella M. Petrick

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Food in 19th-Century American Cities  

Cindy R. Lobel

Over the course of the 19th century, American cities developed from small seaports and trading posts to large metropolises. Not surprisingly, foodways and other areas of daily life changed ... More

Food in 20th-Century American Cities  

Adam Shprintzen

Changing foodways, the consumption and production of food, access to food, and debates over food shaped the nature of American cities in the 20th century. As American cities transformed ... More

Forests and Logging in the United States  

Erik Loomis

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Humans have utilized American forests for a wide variety of uses from the pre-Columbian period to the present. Native Americans heavily shaped forests to serve their needs, helping to ... More

Freedom of the Press  

Sam Lebovic

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
According to the First Amendment of the US Constitution, Congress is barred from abridging the freedom of the press (“Congress shall make no law . . . abridging the freedom of speech, or ... More

Frontier Politics, Providentialism, and “Hobbism” in Bacon’s Rebellion  

Alexander B. Haskell

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Bacon’s Rebellion (1676–1677) was an uprising in the Virginia colony that its participants experienced as both a civil breakdown and a period of intense cosmic disorder. Although Thomas ... More

Fur Trades  

Carolyn Podruchny and Stacy Nation-Knapper

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
From the 15th century to the present, the trade in animal fur has been an economic venture with far-reaching consequences for both North Americans and Europeans (in which North Americans ... More

Gambling in the Northern City: 1800 to 2000  

Matthew Vaz

While American gambling has a historical association with the lawlessness of the frontier and with the wasteful leisure practices of Southern planters, it was in large cities where ... More

Gender in US Foreign Policy  

Heather Stur

Throughout US history, Americans have used ideas about gender to understand power, international relations, military behavior, and the conduct of war. Since Joan Wallach Scott called on ... More

Gender Rights and American Employment  

Katherine Turk

Throughout American history, gender, meaning notions of essential differences between women and men, has shaped how Americans have defined and engaged in productive activity. Work has been ... More

Gender Roles, Women’s Rights, and the Polarization of American Politics in the Late 20th Century  

Marjorie J. Spruill

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
The late 20th century saw gender roles transformed as the so-called Second Wave of American feminism that began in the 1960s gained support. By the early 1970s public opinion increasingly ... More

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