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Indian Slavery  

Christina Snyder

Online publication date:
Dec 2014
The history of American slavery began long before the first Africans arrived at Jamestown in 1619. Evidence from archaeology and oral tradition indicates that for hundreds, perhaps ... More

Indigenous Politics in Pontiac’s War  

Andrew Sturtevant

Online publication date:
May 2018
Although often attributed to the Odawa ogima, or headman, Pontiac, the conflict that bears his name was the work of a large and complicated network of Native people in the Ohio Valley, ... More

Industry, Commerce, and Urbanization in the United States, 1790–1870  

David Schley

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
The eighty years from 1790 to 1870 were marked by dramatic economic and demographic changes in the United States. Cities in this period grew faster than the country as a whole, drawing ... More

Infrastructure: Mass Transit in 19th- and 20th-Century Urban America  

Jay Young

Mass transit has been part of the urban scene in the United States since the early 19th century. Regular steam ferry service began in New York City in the early 1810s and horse-drawn ... More

Infrastructure: Streets, Roads, and Highways  

Peter Norton

By serving travelers and commerce, roads and streets unite people and foster economic growth. But as they develop, roads and streets also disrupt old patterns, upset balances of power, and ... More

Infrastructure: Water and Sewers  

Joel A. Tarr

Urban water supply and sewage disposal facilities are critical parts of the urban infrastructure. They have enabled cities and their metropolitan areas to function as centers of commerce, ... More

Intelligence and U.S. Foreign Relations  

Thomas A. Reinstein

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The United States has a rich history of intelligence in the conduct of foreign relations. Since the Revolutionary War, intelligence has been most relevant to U.S. foreign policy in two ... More

Iran-U.S. Relations  

Kelly J. Shannon

Historian James A. Bill famously described America’s relationship with Iran as a tragedy. “Few international relationships,” he wrote, “have had a more positive beginning than that which ... More

Ireland-US Relations  

Sophie Cooper

Irish and American histories are intertwined as a result of migration, mercantile and economic connections, and diplomatic pressures from governments and nonstate actors. The two fledgling ... More

Irish American Working Class  

David Brundage

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Between the 1790s and the 1990s, the Irish American population grew from some 500,000 to nearly 40 million. Part of this growth was due to immigration, especially in the years of the Great ... More

Isolationism  

Justus D. Doenecke

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
For the United States, isolationism is best defined as avoidance of wars outside the Western Hemisphere, particularly in Europe; opposition to binding military alliances; and the ... More

Japanese American Resettlement in Postwar America: The Los Angeles Experience  

Jean-Paul deGuzman

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Racism and xenophobia, but also resilience and community building, characterize the return of thousands of Japanese Americans, or Nikkei, to the West Coast after World War II. Although the ... More

Japanese Immigrant Gambling in Early 20th-Century California  

Chrissy Yee Lau

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Gambling was a central facet of life for Japanese male laborers in early 20th-century California. From the late 19th to the early 20th century, labor contractors and Chinese gambling dens ... More

Japantown and the Fillmore District  

Clement Lai

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Many Asian American neighborhoods faced displacement after World War II because of urban renewal or redevelopment under the 1949 Housing Act. In the name of blight removal and slum ... More

Jazz, Blues, and Ragtime in America, 1900–1945  

Court Carney

In January 1938, Benny Goodman took command of Carnegie Hall on a blustery New York City evening and for two hours his band tore through the history of jazz in a performance that came to ... More

Jazz in America after 1945  

John Gennari

In the post-1945 period, jazz moved rapidly from one major avant-garde revolution (the birth of bebop) to another (the emergence of free jazz) while developing a profusion of subgenres ... More

Journalism and US Foreign Policy  

Chester Pach

Since the late 19th century, the relationship between journalists and the makers of US foreign policy has been both cooperative and contentious. Reporters depend on government officials ... More

Juvenile Justice in the United States  

David S. Tanenhaus

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Juvenile justice is a technical term that refers to the specific area of law and affiliated institutions, most notably the juvenile court, with jurisdiction over the cases of minors who ... More

King Philip’s War, 1675–1678  

Lisa T. Brooks

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
King Philip’s War (1675–1678) was both a colonial war and an Indigenous resistance movement, which erupted in the summer of 1675 in Wampanoag country and in Plymouth Colony, but quickly ... More

Korean Immigration to the United States After World War II  

Crystal Mun-hye Baik

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Korean immigration to the United States has been shaped by multiple factors, including militarization, colonialism, and war. While Koreans migrated to the American-occupied islands of ... More

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