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Haiti and the Early United States  

Philippe R. Girard

Haiti (known as Saint-Domingue until it gained its independence from France in 1804) had a noted economic and political impact on the United States during the era of the American ... More

Harry S. Truman and US Foreign Relations  

Kaete O'Connell

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
Sworn in as the 33rd President of the United States following Franklin D. Roosevelt’s death in April 1945, Harry S. Truman faced the daunting tasks of winning the war and ensuring future ... More

Haymarket Riot and Conspiracy  

Timothy Messer-Kruse

The Haymarket Riot and Conspiracy of 1886 is a landmark in American social and political history. On May 4, 1886, during an open-air meeting near Haymarket Square in Chicago, someone threw ... More

Henry Kissinger and US Foreign Relations  

Thomas Alan Schwartz

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
Henry Kissinger was the most famous and most controversial American diplomat of the second half of the 20th century. Escaping Nazi persecution in the 1930s, serving in the American Army of ... More

The History of Credit in America  

Rowena Olegario

Online publication date:
May 2019
The United States is a nation built on credit, both public and private. This article focuses on private credit: that is, credit extended to businesses and consumers by private entities such ... More

The History of Immigrant Deportations  

Torrie Hester

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Since the 1880s, the US government has deported more than 55 million immigrants, the majority of whom came from Latin-American countries. But the history of immigrant deportations from the ... More

History of the U.S. Supreme Court  

Timothy S. Huebner

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
The Supreme Court of the United States stands at the head of the nation’s judicial system. Created in Article III of the Constitution of 1787 but obscured by the other branches of ... More

Hollywood Politics  

Kathryn Cramer Brownell

Hollywood has always been political. Since its early days, it has intersected with national, state, and local politics. As a new entertainment industry attempting to gain a footing in a ... More

Housing Policy Across the United States  

Kristin M. Szylvian

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Federal housing policy has been primarily devoted to maintaining the economic stability and profitability of the private sector real estate, household finance, and home-building and supply ... More

Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy  

Sarah B. Snyder

In its formulation of foreign policy, the United States takes account of many priorities and factors, including national security concerns, economic interests, and alliance relationships. ... More

Ideas of Race in Early America  

Sean P. Harvey

“Race,” as a concept denoting a fundamental division of humanity and usually encompassing cultural as well as physical traits, was crucial in early America. It provided the foundation for ... More

Immigration Policy and US Foreign Policy before 1945  

Benjamin C. Montoya

A fear of foreignness shaped the immigration foreign policies of the United States up to the end of World War II. US leaders perceived nonwhite peoples of Latin America, Asia, and Europe as ... More

Immigration to American Cities, 1800–1924  

Hidetaka Hirota

Between 1820 and 1924, nearly thirty-six million immigrants entered the United States. Prior to the Civil War, the vast majority of immigrants were northern and western Europeans, though ... More

Immigration to American Cities, 1925–2017  

Charlotte Brooks

The Immigration Act of 1924 was in large part the result of a deep political and cultural divide in America between heavily immigrant cities and far less diverse small towns and rural ... More

Immigration to the United States after 1945  

Xiaojian Zhao

Post-1945 immigration to the United States differed fairly dramatically from America’s earlier 20th- and 19th-century immigration patterns, most notably in the dramatic rise in numbers of ... More

Indian Removals  

John P. Bowes

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
Indian removals as a topic primarily encompasses the relocation of Native American tribes from American-claimed states and territories east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the ... More

Indian Slavery  

Christina Snyder

Online publication date:
Dec 2014
The history of American slavery began long before the first Africans arrived at Jamestown in 1619. Evidence from archaeology and oral tradition indicates that for hundreds, perhaps ... More

Indigenous Politics in Pontiac’s War  

Andrew Sturtevant

Online publication date:
May 2018
Although often attributed to the Odawa ogima, or headman, Pontiac, the conflict that bears his name was the work of a large and complicated network of Native people in the Ohio Valley, ... More

Industry, Commerce, and Urbanization in the United States, 1790–1870  

David Schley

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
The eighty years from 1790 to 1870 were marked by dramatic economic and demographic changes in the United States. Cities in this period grew faster than the country as a whole, drawing ... More

Infrastructure: Mass Transit in 19th- and 20th-Century Urban America  

Jay Young

Mass transit has been part of the urban scene in the United States since the early 19th century. Regular steam ferry service began in New York City in the early 1810s and horse-drawn ... More

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