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National Urban Renewal  

Christopher Klemek

Published Online:
Jul 2018
Urban renewal refers to an interlocking set of national and local policies, programs, and projects, implemented in the vast majority of American cities between 1949 and 1973. These ... More

Native Americans and Cities  

Nicolas G. Rosenthal

Published Online:
Mar 2015
An important relationship has existed between Native Americans and cities from pre-Columbian times to the early 21st century. Long before Europeans arrived in the Americas, indigenous ... More

The New Deal  

Wendy L. Wall

The New Deal generally refers to a set of domestic policies implemented by the administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in response to the crisis of the Great Depression. Propelled by ... More

New Women in Early 20th-Century America  

Einav Rabinovitch-Fox

Published Online:
Aug 2017
In late 19th- and early 20th-century America, a new image of womanhood emerged that began to shape public views and understandings of women’s role in society. Identified by ... More

The Nixon Administration and American Foreign Policy  

Luke A. Nichter

Assessments of President Richard Nixon’s foreign policy continue to evolve as scholars tap new possibilities for research. Due to the long wait before national security records are ... More

The Northern Homefront  

Nicole Etcheson and Cortney Cantrell

Published Online:
Aug 2016
During the Civil War, the entire North constituted the homefront, an area largely removed from the din and horror of combat. With a few exceptions of raids and battles such as Gettysburg, ... More

Nuclear Arms Control in U.S. Foreign Policy  

Jonathan Hunt

The development of military arms harnessing nuclear energy for mass destruction has inspired continual efforts to control them. Since 1945, the United States, the Soviet Union, the United ... More

The Oil Industry  

Christopher J. Castañeda

Published Online:
Apr 2018
The modern oil industry began in 1859 with Edwin Drake’s discovery of oil at Titusville, Pennsylvania. Since then, this dynamic industry has experienced dramatic episodes of growth, ... More

Organized Labor and the Civil Rights Movement  

Alan Draper

The relationship between organized labor and the civil rights movement proceeded along two tracks. At work, the two groups were adversaries, as civil rights groups criticized employment ... More

Origins of the Vietnam War  

Jessica M. Chapman

The origins of the Vietnam War can be traced to France’s colonization of Indochina in the late 1880s. The Viet Minh, led by Ho Chi Minh, emerged as the dominant anti-colonial movement by ... More

The Panama Canal and the United States  

Michael E. Donoghue

The United States’ construction and operation of the Panama Canal began as an idea and developed into a reality after prolonged diplomatic machinations to acquire the rights to build the ... More

Parks in Urban America  

David Schuyler

Published Online:
Nov 2015
The creation and evolution of urban parks is in some ways a familiar story, especially given the attention that Frederick Law Olmsted’s work has commanded since the early 1970s. Following ... More

The Peace Movement since 1945  

Leilah Danielson

Peace activism in the United States between 1945 and the 2010s focused mostly on opposition to U.S. foreign policy, efforts to strengthen and foster international cooperation, and support ... More

The Persian Gulf War  

Spencer D. Bakich

The Persian Gulf War of 1990–1991 was something of a paradox. From the American perspective, the war had the hallmarks of a resounding victory. Responding to a flagrant case of interstate ... More

Polish Immigration and the American Working Class  

Dominic Pacyga

In the years after the Civil War, Polish immigrants became an important part of the American working class. They actively participated in the labor movement and played key roles in various ... More

Politics of Reproductive Rights in 20th-Century America  

Rickie Solinger

Published Online:
Nov 2017
The reproductive experiences of women and girls in the 20th-century United States followed historical patterns shaped by the politics of race and class. Laws and policies governing ... More

The Politics of the Spanish Language  

Rosina A. Lozano

Published Online:
Jun 2018
Language rights are an integral part of civil rights. They provide the tools that permit individuals to engage with and participate in society. The broad use of the Spanish language in the ... More

Popular Culture and U.S. Foreign Relations  

Andrew J. Falk

Published Online:
Oct 2017
Americans in and out of government have relied on media and popular culture to construct the national identity, frame debates on military interventions, communicate core values abroad, and ... More

The Populist Party, Industrial Workers, and Their Unions  

Michael Pierce

The People’s (or Populist) Party represented the last major third-party effort to prevent the emergence of large-scale corporate capitalism in the United States. Founded in 1891, the party ... More

The Posse Comitatus Doctrine in Early America  

Gautham Rao

Courts and legislatures in colonial America and the early American republic developed and refined a power to compel civilians to assist peace and law enforcement officers in arresting ... More

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