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American Opposition to South African Apartheid  

David L. Hostetter

American activists who challenged South African apartheid during the Cold War era extended their opposition to racial discrimination in the United States into world politics. US ... More

Asian Americans and the 1992 Los Angeles Riots/Uprising  

Shelley Sang-Hee Lee

Although the 1992 Los Angeles riots have been described as a “race riot” sparked by the acquittals of a group of mostly white police officers charged with excessively beating black motorist ... More

Black Women and Beauty Culture in 20th-Century America  

Maxine Leeds Craig

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Black beauty culture developed in the context of widespread disparagement of black men and women in images produced by whites, and black women’s exclusion from mainstream cultural ... More

Black Women’s Internationalism from the Age of Revolutions to World War I  

Brandon R. Byrd

Black internationalism describes the political culture and intellectual practice forged in response to slavery, colonialism, and white imperialism. It is a historical and ongoing collective ... More

Civil Rights and Schools: Tinker v. Des Moines  

Kathryn Schumaker

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
The 1969 Supreme Court ruling in Tinker v. Des Moines established that students in public elementary and secondary schools do not “shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech or ... More

Contraband Camps and the African American Refugee Experience during the Civil War  

Chandra Manning

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
In May 1861, three enslaved men who were determined not to be separated from their families ran to Fort Monroe, Virginia. Their flight led to the phenomenon of Civil War contraband camps. ... More

Haiti and the Early United States  

Philippe R. Girard

Haiti (known as Saint-Domingue until it gained its independence from France in 1804) had a noted economic and political impact on the United States during the era of the American ... More

Ideas of Race in Early America  

Sean P. Harvey

“Race,” as a concept denoting a fundamental division of humanity and usually encompassing cultural as well as physical traits, was crucial in early America. It provided the foundation for ... More

Jazz, Blues, and Ragtime in America, 1900–1945  

Court Carney

In January 1938, Benny Goodman took command of Carnegie Hall on a blustery New York City evening and for two hours his band tore through the history of jazz in a performance that came to ... More

Jazz in America after 1945  

John Gennari

In the post-1945 period, jazz moved rapidly from one major avant-garde revolution (the birth of bebop) to another (the emergence of free jazz) while developing a profusion of subgenres ... More

Latino/a and African American Relations  

Brian D. Behnken

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
African Americans and Latino/as have had a long history of social interactions that have been strongly affected by the broader sense of race in the United States. Race in the United States ... More

Muslims in America from the European Colonial Period to the Present  

Kambiz GhaneaBassiri

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
The history of Muslims in America dates back to the transatlantic mercantile interactions between Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Upon its arrival, Islam became entrenched in American ... More

Organized Labor and the Civil Rights Movement  

Alan Draper

The relationship between organized labor and the civil rights movement proceeded along two tracks. At work, the two groups were adversaries, as civil rights groups criticized employment ... More

Race and the Origins of Plantation Slavery  

Justin Roberts

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
“Twenty and odd” Africans arrived in Virginia aboard a Dutch vessel in 1619 shortly after permanent colonization of the English Americas began. There has been significant academic debate ... More

Religion and Race in America  

Emily Suzanne Clark

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Religion and race provide rich categories of analysis for American history. Neither category is stable. They change, shift, and develop in light of historical and cultural contexts. ... More

Religion in African American History  

Judith Weisenfeld

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
Dynamic and creative exchanges among different religions, including indigenous traditions, Protestant and Catholic Christianity, and Islam, all with developing theologies and institutions, ... More

Repressive Legislation: Slave Codes, Northern Black Laws, and Southern Black Codes  

Stephen Middleton

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Beginning in the 1630s, colonial assemblies in English America and later the new United States used legislation and constitutions to enslave Africans and deny free blacks civil rights, ... More

Rock and Roll  

Eric Weisbard

Rock and roll, a popular music craze of the mid-1950s, turned a loud, fast, and sexy set of sounds rooted in urban, black, working class, and southern America into the pop preference as ... More

The 1960s  

Robert O. Self

Few decades in American history reverberate with as much historical reach or glow as brightly in living mythology as the 1960s. During those years Americans reanimated and reinvented the ... More

Slave Narratives  

John Ernest

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
Slave narratives emerged in the 18th century to testify to the inhumanity of the practice of slavery. Often autobiographical accounts, but sometimes written by others or dictated to an ... More

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