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The Persian Gulf War  

Spencer D. Bakich

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
The Persian Gulf War of 1990–1991 was something of a paradox. From the American perspective, the war had the hallmarks of a resounding victory. Responding to a flagrant case of interstate ... More

Polish Immigration and the American Working Class  

Dominic Pacyga

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
In the years after the Civil War, Polish immigrants became an important part of the American working class. They actively participated in the labor movement and played key roles in various ... More

Politics of Reproductive Rights in 20th-Century America  

Rickie Solinger

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
The reproductive experiences of women and girls in the 20th-century United States followed historical patterns shaped by the politics of race and class. Laws and policies governing ... More

The Politics of the Spanish Language  

Rosina A. Lozano

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Language rights are an integral part of civil rights. They provide the tools that permit individuals to engage with and participate in society. The broad use of the Spanish language in the ... More

Popular Culture and U.S. Foreign Relations  

Andrew J. Falk

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Americans in and out of government have relied on media and popular culture to construct the national identity, frame debates on military interventions, communicate core values abroad, and ... More

The Populist Party, Industrial Workers, and Their Unions  

Michael Pierce

The People’s (or Populist) Party represented the last major third-party effort to prevent the emergence of large-scale corporate capitalism in the United States. Founded in 1891, the party ... More

The Posse Comitatus Doctrine in Early America  

Gautham Rao

Courts and legislatures in colonial America and the early American republic developed and refined a power to compel civilians to assist peace and law enforcement officers in arresting ... More

Post-World War II Asian American Suburban Culture  

Mark Padoongpatt

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Substantial numbers of Asian Americans and Asian immigrants moved into suburbs across the United States after World War II, bringing distinctive everyday lifeways, identities, worldviews, ... More

Poverty in the Modern American City  

Ella Howard

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
American cities expanded during the late 19th century, as industrial growth was fueled by the arrival of millions of immigrants and migrants. Poverty rates escalated, overwhelming existing ... More

Print, the Press, and the American Revolution  

Robert G. Parkinson

According to David Ramsay, one of the first historians of the American Revolution, “in establishing American independence, the pen and press had merit equal to that of the sword.” Because ... More

Professional Team Sports in the United States  

Steven A. Riess

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Professional sports teams are athletic organizations comprising talented, expert players hired by club owners whose revenues originally derived from admission fees charged to spectators ... More

Progressives and Progressivism in an Era of Reform  

Maureen A. Flanagan

The decades from the 1890s into the 1920s produced reform movements in the United States that resulted in significant changes to the country’s social, political, cultural, and economic ... More

Propaganda in the History of U.S. Foreign Relations  

Laura A. Belmonte

From the revolutionary era to the post-9/11 years, public and private actors have attempted to shape U.S. foreign relations by persuading mass audiences to embrace particular policies, ... More

Prostitution in America  

Jessica Pliley

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Commercialized sexuality became a prominent feature of American urban settings in the early 19th century when young men migrated far from the watchful eyes of family as soldiers and ... More

Protestantism in America  

John Fea

Online publication date:
May 2017
It is virtually impossible to understand the history of the American experience without Protestantism. The theological and religious descendants of the Protestant Reformation arrived in ... More

Public Authorities  

Gail Radford

Public authorities are agencies created by governments to engage directly in the economy for public purposes. They differ from standard agencies in that they operate outside the ... More

Public Housing in Urban America  

D. Bradford Hunt

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
Public housing emerged during the New Deal as a progressive effort to end the scourge of dilapidated housing in American cities. Reformers argued that the private market had failed to ... More

Public Lands and Their Administration  

Adam M. Sowards

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
For more than a century after the republic’s founding in the 1780s, American law reflected the ideal that the commons—the public domain—should be turned into private property. As Americans ... More

Public Opinion and US Foreign Relations  

Nicholas J. Cull

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Public opinion has been part of US foreign relations in two key ways. As one would expect in a democracy, the American public has shaped the foreign policy of its government. No less ... More

Public Sector Unionism  

Joseph E. Hower

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Government employees are an essential part of the early-21st-century labor movement in the United States. Teachers, firefighters, and police officers are among the most heavily unionized ... More

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