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Public Space in North American Cities  

Jessica Ellen Sewell

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
From 1800 to 2000, cities grew enormously, and saw an expansion of public spaces to serve the varied needs of a diverse population living in ever more cramped and urban circumstances. ... More

Puerto Ricans in the United States  

Lorrin Thomas

Puerto Rican migrants have resided in the United States since before the Spanish-Cuban-American War of 1898, when the United States took possession of the island of Puerto Rico as part of ... More

The Puritans  

Sarah Rivett

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
The Puritans were a group of people loosely defined through their shared adherence to the reformed theological tradition, largely following the work of John Calvin. Beginning in the 16th ... More

Race and the Origins of Plantation Slavery  

Justin Roberts

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
“Twenty and odd” Africans arrived in Virginia aboard a Dutch vessel in 1619 shortly after permanent colonization of the English Americas began. There has been significant academic debate ... More

Race, Gender, and Sex Education in 20th-Century America  

Courtney Q. Shah

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
A concerted movement to promote sex education in America emerged in the early 20th century as part of a larger public health movement that also responded to the previous century’s concerns ... More

Race, Gender, and the Making of New Netherland  

Susanah Shaw Romney

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
On the mid-Atlantic coast between 1624 and 1664, the Dutch developed a successful and expansive colony, one that depended on particular interactions among women and men from American, ... More

Racial Diversity and Suburban Politics in 20th-Century Los Angeles  

Hillary Jenks

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Radicalism in America after 1945  

Vaneesa Cook

Online publication date:
May 2017
Radicalism in the United States since 1945 has been varied, complex, and often fragmented, making it difficult to analyze as a coherent movement. Communist and pro-Soviet organizations ... More

Railroads in US History  

Albert Churella

Since the early 1800s railroads have served as a critical element of the transportation infrastructure in the United States and have generated profound changes in technology, finance, ... More

Rap Music  

Austin McCoy

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Rap is the musical practice of hip hop culture that features vocalists, or MCs, reciting lyrics over an instrumental beat that emerged out of the political and economic transformations of ... More

Regulating America’s Natural Environment  

Bart Elmore

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
From the founding of the American republic through the 19th century, the nation’s environmental policy mostly centered on promoting American settlers’ conquest of the frontier. Early ... More

Religion and Labor in the 20th Century  

Matthew Pehl

America’s tremendous diversities of faith, region, and ethnicity complicate efforts to generalize relationships between religious groups and the labor movement. Americans’ historic and ... More

Religion and Race in America  

Emily Suzanne Clark

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Religion and race provide rich categories of analysis for American history. Neither category is stable. They change, shift, and develop in light of historical and cultural contexts. ... More

Religion and the Great Depression  

Alison Greene

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The Great Depression of 1929–1941 brought not only economic and social crisis, but also forced families, churches, and religious organizations to reckon with individual and social ... More

Religion in African American History  

Judith Weisenfeld

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
Dynamic and creative exchanges among different religions, including indigenous traditions, Protestant and Catholic Christianity, and Islam, all with developing theologies and institutions, ... More

Religion in Post-1945 America  

Darren Dochuk

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Jimmy Carter’s “Crisis of Confidence Speech” of July 1979 was a critical juncture in post-1945 U.S. politics, but it also marks an exemplary pivot in post-1945 religion. Five dimensions of ... More

Religion in the American City, 1600–1900  

Kyle B. Roberts

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
From Cahokia to Newport, from Santa Fe to Chicago, cities have long exerted an important influence over the development of American religion; in turn, religion has shaped the life of ... More

Religion in the American City, 1900–2000  

Christopher D. Cantwell

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
Home to more than half the U.S. population by 1920, cities played an important role in the development of American religion throughout the 20th century. At the same time, the beliefs and ... More

Religious Influences on U.S. Foreign Policy  

Cara L. Burnidge

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Since 2001, there has been a noticeable increase in the number of scholarly monographs dedicated to religion and foreign relations. More scholars and policymakers agree that religion is an ... More

The Repeal of Asian Exclusion  

Jane H. Hong

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Laws barring Asians from legal immigration and naturalization in the United States began with the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and expanded to include all other Asian groups by 1924. ... More

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