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Radicalism in America after 1945  

Vaneesa Cook

Online publication date:
May 2017
Radicalism in the United States since 1945 has been varied, complex, and often fragmented, making it difficult to analyze as a coherent movement. Communist and pro-Soviet organizations ... More

Railroads in US History  

Albert Churella

Since the early 1800s railroads have served as a critical element of the transportation infrastructure in the United States and have generated profound changes in technology, finance, ... More

Rap Music  

Austin McCoy

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Rap is the musical practice of hip hop culture that features vocalists, or MCs, reciting lyrics over an instrumental beat that emerged out of the political and economic transformations of ... More

Regulating America’s Natural Environment  

Bart Elmore

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
From the founding of the American republic through the 19th century, the nation’s environmental policy mostly centered on promoting American settlers’ conquest of the frontier. Early ... More

Religion and Labor in the 20th Century  

Matthew Pehl

America’s tremendous diversities of faith, region, and ethnicity complicate efforts to generalize relationships between religious groups and the labor movement. Americans’ historic and ... More

Religion and Race in America  

Emily Suzanne Clark

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Religion and race provide rich categories of analysis for American history. Neither category is stable. They change, shift, and develop in light of historical and cultural contexts. ... More

Religion and the Great Depression  

Alison Greene

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The Great Depression of 1929–1941 brought not only economic and social crisis, but also forced families, churches, and religious organizations to reckon with individual and social ... More

Religion in African American History  

Judith Weisenfeld

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
Dynamic and creative exchanges among different religions, including indigenous traditions, Protestant and Catholic Christianity, and Islam, all with developing theologies and institutions, ... More

Religion in Post-1945 America  

Darren Dochuk

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Jimmy Carter’s “Crisis of Confidence Speech” of July 1979 was a critical juncture in post-1945 U.S. politics, but it also marks an exemplary pivot in post-1945 religion. Five dimensions of ... More

Religion in the American City, 1600–1900  

Kyle B. Roberts

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
From Cahokia to Newport, from Santa Fe to Chicago, cities have long exerted an important influence over the development of American religion; in turn, religion has shaped the life of ... More

Religion in the American City, 1900–2000  

Christopher D. Cantwell

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
Home to more than half the U.S. population by 1920, cities played an important role in the development of American religion throughout the 20th century. At the same time, the beliefs and ... More

Religious Influences on U.S. Foreign Policy  

Cara L. Burnidge

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Since 2001, there has been a noticeable increase in the number of scholarly monographs dedicated to religion and foreign relations. More scholars and policymakers agree that religion is an ... More

The Repeal of Asian Exclusion  

Jane H. Hong

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Laws barring Asians from legal immigration and naturalization in the United States began with the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and expanded to include all other Asian groups by 1924. ... More

The Republican Party and US Foreign Relations  

David L. Prentice

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
The history of the Republican Party’s foreign policy reminds historians that national politics often entails efforts to hold together a diverse coalition. The party’s regional alignments, ... More

The Rise and Fall of Mississippian Ancient Towns and Cities, 1000–1700  

Robbie Ethridge

The story of the pre-Columbian Mississippi Period (1000 ce–1600 ce) of the American South and parts of the Midwest is the story of the rise of the ancient Mississippian towns and cities ... More

The Rise of Chinese Food in the United States  

Yong Chen

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The “Chinese 49’ers” who arrived in the United States a decade before the American Civil War constituted the first large wave of Asian migrants to America and transplanted the first Asian ... More

Rock and Roll  

Eric Weisbard

Rock and roll, a popular music craze of the mid-1950s, turned a loud, fast, and sexy set of sounds rooted in urban, black, working class, and southern America into the pop preference as ... More

Roe v. Wade  

Mary Ziegler

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Decided by the Supreme Court in 1973, Roe v. Wade legalized abortion across the United States. The 7-2 decision came at the end of a decades-long struggle to reform—and later ... More

The Role of Agriculture and Food Aid in US Policymaking during the Cold War  

Kristin L. Ahlberg

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
In the 20th century, US policymakers often attempted to solve domestic agricultural oversupply problems by extending food aid to foreign recipients. In some instances, the United States ... More

The Role of Congress in the History of US Foreign Relations  

Clay Silver Katsky

While presidents have historically been the driving force behind foreign policy decision-making, Congress has used its constitutional authority to influence the process. The nation’s ... More

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