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The Significance of Society in the 18th Century: Conversations about Governance  

Andrew Cayton

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
The American Revolution was an episode in a transatlantic outcry against the corruption of the British balance of power and liberty institutionalized in the Glorious Revolution of ... More

The Sit-In Movement  

Christopher W. Schmidt

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
One of the most significant protest campaigns of the civil rights era, the lunch counter sit-in movement began on February 1, 1960 when four young African American men sat down at the ... More

Skyscrapers and Tall Buildings  

Elihu Rubin

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
The tall building—the most popular and conspicuous emblem of the modern American city—stands as an index of economic activity, civic aspirations, and urban development. Enmeshed in the ... More

Slavery in North American Cities  

Leslie Harris

The patterns of urban slavery in North American and pre-Civil War US cities reveal the ways in which individual men and women, as well as businesses, institutions, and governmental bodies ... More

Sleeping with an Elephant: Canadian-American Relations, 1759–2019  

Robert Bothwell

Online publication date:
Jun 2019
Canada has sometimes been called the United States’ attic: a useful feature, but one easily forgotten. Of all countries, it has historically resembled the United States the most closely, ... More

Smuggling in Early America  

Christian J. Koot

Online publication date:
Jan 2016
Smuggling was a regular feature of the economy of colonial British America in the 17th and 18th centuries. Though the very nature of illicit commerce means that the extent of this trade is ... More

Social Gospel and the American Working Class  

Janine Giordano Drake

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The term “Social Gospel” was coined by ministers and other well-meaning American Protestants with the intention of encouraging the urban and rural poor to understand that Christ cared ... More

Social Science and Foreign Affairs  

Joy Rohde

Since the social sciences began to emerge as scholarly disciplines in the last quarter of the 19th century, they have frequently offered authoritative intellectual frameworks that have ... More

The Society of American Indians  

K. Tsianina Lomawaima

In 1911, a group of American Indian intellectuals organized what would become known as the Society of American Indians, or SAI. SAI members convened in annual meetings between 1911 and ... More

Soldiers in the Union Army  

Lorien Foote

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Soldiers enlisted in the Union Army from every state in the Union and the Confederacy. The initial volunteers were motivated to preserve the accomplishments of the American Revolution and ... More

Southeast Asian Americans  

Chia Youyee Vang

In geopolitical terms, the Asian sub-region Southeast Asia consists of ten countries that are organized under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Current member nations ... More

Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars  

Stuart White

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
The Spanish-American War is best understood as a series of linked conflicts. Those conflicts punctuated Madrid’s decline to a third-rank European state and marked the United States’ ... More

Spatial Segregation and Neighborhoods  

Carl Nightingale

During the 1890s, the word segregation became the preferred term for the practice of coercing different groups of people, especially those designated by race, to live in separate and ... More

Nightlife in the City  

Peter C. Baldwin

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
Today the term nightlife typically refers to social activities in urban commercial spaces—particularly drinking, dancing, dining, and listening to live musical performances. This was not ... More

Stephen Wise and Americanism  

Randi Storch

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Over the first half of the 20th century, Rabbi Stephen S. Wise (1874–1949) devoted himself to solving the most controversial social and political problems of his day: corruption in ... More

Street Gangs in the 20th-Century American City  

Andrew Diamond

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Conceptions of what constitutes a street gang or a youth gang have varied since the seminal sociological studies on these entities in the 1920s. Organizations of teenage youths and young ... More

Strikebreakers  

Stephen H. Norwood

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Strikebreakers have been drawn from many parts of the American population, most notably the permanently and seasonally unemployed and underemployed. Excluded from a vast range of ... More

Struggles over Individual Rights and State Power in the Progressive Era  

Michael Willrich

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
From the 1890s to World War I, progressive reformers in the United States called upon their local, state, and federal governments to revitalize American democracy and address the most ... More

Suburbanization before 1945  

Ann Durkin Keating

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Since the beginning of the 19th century, outlying areas of American cities have been home to a variety of settlements and enterprises with close links to urban centers. Beginning in the ... More

Suburbanization in the United States after 1945  

Becky Nicolaides and Andrew Wiese

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Mass migration to suburban areas was a defining feature of American life after 1945. Before World War II, just 13% of Americans lived in suburbs. By 2010, however, suburbia was home to ... More

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