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Food in 19th-Century American Cities  

Cindy R. Lobel

Over the course of the 19th century, American cities developed from small seaports and trading posts to large metropolises. Not surprisingly, foodways and other areas of daily life changed ... More

Food in 20th-Century American Cities  

Adam Shprintzen

Changing foodways, the consumption and production of food, access to food, and debates over food shaped the nature of American cities in the 20th century. As American cities transformed ... More

Gambling in the Northern City: 1800 to 2000  

Matthew Vaz

While American gambling has a historical association with the lawlessness of the frontier and with the wasteful leisure practices of Southern planters, it was in large cities where ... More

Gentrification in the United States  

Suleiman Osman

Online publication date:
May 2016
Gentrification is one of the most controversial issues in American cities today. But it also remains one of the least understood. Few agree on how to define it or whether it is boon or ... More

Globalization and the American City  

B. Alex Beasley

American cities have been transnational in nature since the first urban spaces emerged during the colonial period. Yet the specific shape of the relationship between American cities and ... More

The Great Depression  

Erik Gellman and Margaret Rung

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
From the late 1920s through the 1930s, countries on every inhabited continent suffered through a dramatic and wrenching economic contraction termed the Great Depression, an economic ... More

The Great Migration in Context: The Chicago Experience, 1916–1918  

Christopher R. Reed

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
The unanticipated and massive migration of half a million African Americans between 1916 and 1918 from the racially oppressive South to the welcoming North surprised the nation. Directly ... More

The Great Migrations and Black Urban Life in the United States, 1914–1970  

Tyina Steptoe

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
During the 20th century, the black population of the United States transitioned from largely rural to mostly urban. In the early 1900s the majority of African Americans lived in rural, ... More

Housing Policy Across the United States  

Kristin M. Szylvian

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Federal housing policy has been primarily devoted to maintaining the economic stability and profitability of the private sector real estate, household finance, and home-building and supply ... More

Immigration to American Cities, 1800–1924  

Hidetaka Hirota

Between 1820 and 1924, nearly thirty-six million immigrants entered the United States. Prior to the Civil War, the vast majority of immigrants were northern and western Europeans, though ... More

Immigration to American Cities, 1925–2017  

Charlotte Brooks

The Immigration Act of 1924 was in large part the result of a deep political and cultural divide in America between heavily immigrant cities and far less diverse small towns and rural ... More

Immigration to the United States after 1945  

Xiaojian Zhao

Post-1945 immigration to the United States differed fairly dramatically from America’s earlier 20th- and 19th-century immigration patterns, most notably in the dramatic rise in numbers of ... More

Industry, Commerce, and Urbanization in the United States, 1790–1870  

David Schley

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
The eighty years from 1790 to 1870 were marked by dramatic economic and demographic changes in the United States. Cities in this period grew faster than the country as a whole, drawing ... More

Infrastructure: Mass Transit in 19th- and 20th-Century Urban America  

Jay Young

Mass transit has been part of the urban scene in the United States since the early 19th century. Regular steam ferry service began in New York City in the early 1810s and horse-drawn ... More

Infrastructure: Streets, Roads, and Highways  

Peter Norton

By serving travelers and commerce, roads and streets unite people and foster economic growth. But as they develop, roads and streets also disrupt old patterns, upset balances of power, and ... More

Infrastructure: Water and Sewers  

Joel A. Tarr

Urban water supply and sewage disposal facilities are critical parts of the urban infrastructure. They have enabled cities and their metropolitan areas to function as centers of commerce, ... More

Irish American Working Class  

David Brundage

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Between the 1790s and the 1990s, the Irish American population grew from some 500,000 to nearly 40 million. Part of this growth was due to immigration, especially in the years of the Great ... More

Japanese American Resettlement in Postwar America: The Los Angeles Experience  

Jean-Paul deGuzman

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Racism and xenophobia, but also resilience and community building, characterize the return of thousands of Japanese Americans, or Nikkei, to the West Coast after World War II. Although the ... More

Japanese Immigrant Gambling in Early 20th-Century California  

Chrissy Yee Lau

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Gambling was a central facet of life for Japanese male laborers in early 20th-century California. From the late 19th to the early 20th century, labor contractors and Chinese gambling dens ... More

Japantown and the Fillmore District  

Clement Lai

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Many Asian American neighborhoods faced displacement after World War II because of urban renewal or redevelopment under the 1949 Housing Act. In the name of blight removal and slum ... More

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