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Poverty in the Modern American City  

Ella Howard

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
American cities expanded during the late 19th century, as industrial growth was fueled by the arrival of millions of immigrants and migrants. Poverty rates escalated, overwhelming existing ... More

Progressives and Progressivism in an Era of Reform  

Maureen A. Flanagan

The decades from the 1890s into the 1920s produced reform movements in the United States that resulted in significant changes to the country’s social, political, cultural, and economic ... More

Public Space in North American Cities  

Jessica Ellen Sewell

From 1800 to 2000, cities grew enormously, and saw an expansion of public spaces to serve the varied needs of a diverse population living in ever more cramped and urban circumstances. ... More

Schools in US Cities  

Ansley T. Erickson

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
“Urban infrastructure” calls to mind railways, highways, and sewer systems. Yet the school buildings—red brick, limestone, or concrete, low-slung, turreted, or glass-fronted—that hold and ... More

Street Gangs in the 20th-Century American City  

Andrew Diamond

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Conceptions of what constitutes a street gang or a youth gang have varied since the seminal sociological studies on these entities in the 1920s. Organizations of teenage youths and young ... More

Suburbanization before 1945  

Ann Durkin Keating

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Since the beginning of the 19th century, outlying areas of American cities have been home to a variety of settlements and enterprises with close links to urban centers. Beginning in the ... More

Temperance and Prohibition  

H. Paul Thompson Jr.

Online publication date:
May 2017
The temperance and prohibition movement—a social reform movement that pursued many approaches to limit or prohibit the use and/or sale of alcoholic beverages—is arguably the ... More

Industrialization and Urbanization in the United States, 1880–1929  

Jonathan Rees

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Between 1880 and 1929, industrialization and urbanization expanded in the United States faster than ever before. Industrialization, meaning manufacturing in factory settings using machines ... More

Urban Politics in the United States before 1940  

James J. Connolly

Online publication date:
May 2016
The convergence of mass politics and the growth of cities in 19th-century America produced sharp debates over the character of politics in urban settings. The development of what came to ... More

Urban Riots and Rioting in the United States, 1800–2000  

Alex Elkins

Rioting in the United States since 1800 has adhered to three basic traditions: regulating communal morality, defending community from outside threats, and protesting government abuse of ... More

Zoning in 20th-Century American Cities  

Christopher Silver

Zoning is a legal tool employed by local governments to regulate land development. It determines the use, intensity, and form of development in localities through enforcement of the zoning ... More

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