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The Black Freedom Struggle in the Urban North  

Thomas J. Sugrue

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
Racism in the United States has long been a national problem, not a regional phenomenon. The long and well-documented history of slavery, Jim Crow laws, and racial violence in the South ... More

Black Women and Beauty Culture in 20th-Century America  

Maxine Leeds Craig

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Black beauty culture developed in the context of widespread disparagement of black men and women in images produced by whites, and black women’s exclusion from mainstream cultural ... More

Black Women’s Internationalism from the Age of Revolutions to World War I  

Brandon R. Byrd

Black internationalism describes the political culture and intellectual practice forged in response to slavery, colonialism, and white imperialism. It is a historical and ongoing ... More

Bracero Guest Worker Program  

Ana Elizabeth Rosas

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Buddhism in America  

Jeff Wilson

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Buddhist history in the United States traces to the mid-19th century, when early scholars and spiritual pioneers first introduced the subject to Americans, followed soon by the arrival of ... More

Calvinism in the United States  

Darryl Hart

Online publication date:
Jun 2016
The history of Calvinism in the United States is part of a much larger development, the globalization of western Christianity. American Calvinism owes its existence to the transplanting of ... More

Cambodians in the United States: Refugees, Immigrants, American Ethnic Minority  

Sucheng Chan

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Cambodians entered the United States as refugees after a group of Cambodian Communists named Khmer Rouge, led by the French-educated Pol Pot, won a civil war that had raged from March 1970 ... More

The Car and the City  

David Blanke

The relationship between the car and the city remains complex and involves numerous private and public forces, innovations in technology, global economic fluctuations, and shifting ... More

Carlos Montezuma and the Emergence of American Indian Activism  

Maurice Crandall

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Carlos Montezuma was one of the most influential Indians of his day and a prominent leader among the Red Progressives of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Born to Yavapai parents in ... More

Catholicism in the United States  

Margaret McGuinness

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
The Catholic Church has been a presence in the United States since the arrival of French and Spanish missionaries in the 16th and 17th centuries. The Spanish established a number of ... More

The Central Business District in American Cities  

Emily Remus

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
The central business district, often referred to as the “downtown,” was the economic nucleus of the American city in the 19th and 20th centuries. It stood at the core of urban commercial ... More

Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers Movement  

Matt Garcia

In September 1962, the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) held its first convention in Fresno, California, initiating a multiracial movement that would result in the creation of ... More

Childbirth and Breastfeeding in 20th-Century America  

Jessica Martucci

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
By the end of the 19th century, the medical specialties of gynecology and obstetrics established a new trend in women’s healthcare. In the 20th century, more and more American mothers gave ... More

Children and Slavery  

Wilma King

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Boys and girls of European and African descent in Colonial America shared commonalities initially as unfree laborers, with promises of emancipation for all. However, as labor costs and ... More

Chinese Herb Doctors in the United States, 1850–1950  

Haiming Liu

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Chinese were one of the few immigrant groups who brought with them a deep-rooted medical tradition. Chinese herbal doctors and stores came and appeared in California as soon as the Gold ... More

Christian Missions to American Indians  

Carol L. Higham

Online publication date:
May 2016
Comparing Catholic and Protestant missionaries in North America can be a herculean task. It means comparing many religious groups, at least five governments, and hundreds of groups of ... More

The City Beautiful Movement, 1890–1920  

John D. Fairfield

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The City Beautiful movement arose in the 1890s in response to the accumulating dirt and disorder in industrial cities, which threatened economic efficiency and social peace. City Beautiful ... More

Civilian Nuclear Power  

Daniel Pope

Nuclear power in the United States has had an uneven history and faces an uncertain future. Promising in the 1950s electricity “too cheap to meter,” nuclear power has failed to come close ... More

The Civil Rights Movement in the Urban South  

Claudrena N. Harold

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
The civil rights movement in the urban South transformed the political, economic, and cultural landscape of post–World War II America. Between 1955 and 1968, African Americans and their ... More

Climate Change and the American City  

Andrew Hurley

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
American cities developed under relatively quiescent climatic conditions. A gradual rise in average global temperatures during the 19th and 20th centuries had a negligible impact on how ... More

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