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The New Deal  

Wendy L. Wall

The New Deal generally refers to a set of domestic policies implemented by the administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in response to the crisis of the Great Depression. Propelled by ... More

Parks in Urban America  

David Schuyler

Online publication date:
Nov 2015
The creation and evolution of urban parks is in some ways a familiar story, especially given the attention that Frederick Law Olmsted’s work has commanded since the early 1970s. Following ... More

Post-World War II Asian American Suburban Culture  

Mark Padoongpatt

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Substantial numbers of Asian Americans and Asian immigrants moved into suburbs across the United States after World War II, bringing distinctive everyday lifeways, identities, worldviews, ... More

Poverty in the Modern American City  

Ella Howard

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
American cities expanded during the late 19th century, as industrial growth was fueled by the arrival of millions of immigrants and migrants. Poverty rates escalated, overwhelming existing ... More

Professional Team Sports in the United States  

Steven A. Riess

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Professional sports teams are athletic organizations comprising talented, expert players hired by club owners whose revenues originally derived from admission fees charged to spectators ... More

Progressives and Progressivism in an Era of Reform  

Maureen A. Flanagan

The decades from the 1890s into the 1920s produced reform movements in the United States that resulted in significant changes to the country’s social, political, cultural, and economic ... More

Public Authorities  

Gail Radford

Public authorities are agencies created by governments to engage directly in the economy for public purposes. They differ from standard agencies in that they operate outside the ... More

Public Housing in Urban America  

D. Bradford Hunt

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
Public housing emerged during the New Deal as a progressive effort to end the scourge of dilapidated housing in American cities. Reformers argued that the private market had failed to ... More

Public Sector Unionism  

Joseph E. Hower

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Government employees are an essential part of the early-21st-century labor movement in the United States. Teachers, firefighters, and police officers are among the most heavily unionized ... More

Puerto Ricans in the United States  

Lorrin Thomas

Puerto Rican migrants have resided in the United States since before the Spanish-Cuban-American War of 1898, when the United States took possession of the island of Puerto Rico as part of ... More

Racial Diversity and Suburban Politics in 20th-Century Los Angeles  

Hillary Jenks

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Religion in the American City, 1600–1900  

Kyle B. Roberts

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
From Cahokia to Newport, from Santa Fe to Chicago, cities have long exerted an important influence over the development of American religion; in turn, religion has shaped the life of ... More

Religion in the American City, 1900–2000  

Christopher D. Cantwell

Online publication date:
Sep 2016
Home to more than half the U.S. population by 1920, cities played an important role in the development of American religion throughout the 20th century. At the same time, the beliefs and ... More

The Rise and Fall of Mississippian Ancient Towns and Cities, 1000–1700  

Robbie Ethridge

The story of the pre-Columbian Mississippi Period (1000 ce–1600 ce) of the American South and parts of the Midwest is the story of the rise of the ancient Mississippian towns and cities ... More

The 1960s  

Robert O. Self

Few decades in American history reverberate with as much historical reach or glow as brightly in living mythology as the 1960s. During those years Americans reanimated and reinvented the ... More

Schools in US Cities  

Ansley T. Erickson

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
“Urban infrastructure” calls to mind railways, highways, and sewer systems. Yet the school buildings—red brick, limestone, or concrete, low-slung, turreted, or glass-fronted—that hold and ... More

Spatial Segregation and Neighborhoods  

Carl Nightingale

During the 1890s, the word segregation became the preferred term for the practice of coercing different groups of people, especially those designated by race, to live in separate and ... More

Nightlife in the City  

Peter C. Baldwin

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
Today the term nightlife typically refers to social activities in urban commercial spaces—particularly drinking, dancing, dining, and listening to live musical performances. This was not ... More

Street Gangs in the 20th-Century American City  

Andrew Diamond

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Conceptions of what constitutes a street gang or a youth gang have varied since the seminal sociological studies on these entities in the 1920s. Organizations of teenage youths and young ... More

Suburbanization before 1945  

Ann Durkin Keating

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Since the beginning of the 19th century, outlying areas of American cities have been home to a variety of settlements and enterprises with close links to urban centers. Beginning in the ... More

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