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The American Experience during World War II  

Michael C. C. Adams

On the eve of World War II many Americans were reluctant to see the United States embark on overseas involvements. Yet the Japanese attack on the U.S. Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor on ... More

American Film from the Silent Era to the “Talkies”  

Donna Kornhaber

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
The first forty years of cinema in the United States, from the development and commercialization of modern motion picture technology in the mid-1890s to the full blossoming of sound-era ... More

American Food, Cooking, and Nutrition, 1900–1945  

Helen Zoe Veit

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The first half of the 20th century saw extraordinary changes in the ways Americans produced, procured, cooked, and ate food. Exploding food production easily outstripped population growth ... More

American Labor and Working-Class History, 1900–1945  

Jeffrey Helgeson

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Early 20th century American labor and working-class history is a subfield of American social history that focuses attention on the complex lives of working people in a rapidly changing ... More

American Mass Culture, 1900–1945  

Daniel Borus

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The story of mass culture from 1900 to 1945 is the story of its growth and increasing centrality to American life. Sparked by the development of such new media as radios, phonographs, and ... More

American Radio and Technological Transformation from Invention to Broadcasting, 1900–1945  

Michael A. Krysko

Radio debuted as a wireless alternative to telegraphy in the late 19th century. At its inception, wireless technology could only transmit signals and was incapable of broadcasting actual ... More

American Urban Planning Since 1850  

Harold Platt

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
As places of dense habitation, cities have always required coordination and planning. City planning has involved the design and construction of large-scale infrastructure projects to ... More

Angel Island Immigration Station  

Judy Yung and Erika Lee

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
The Angel Island Immigration Station (1910–1940), located in San Francisco Bay, was one of twenty-four ports of entry established by the U.S. government to process and detain immigrants ... More

Anna May Wong and Asian American Popular Culture  

Shirley Lim

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Anna May Wong (January 3, 1905–February 3, 1961) was the first Chinese American movie star and the first Asian American actress to gain international recognition. Wong broke the codes of ... More

Arab Labor Migration in the Americas, 1880–1930  

Stacy D. Fahrenthold

Online publication date:
May 2019
Between 1880 and 1924, an estimated half million Arab migrants left the Ottoman Empire to live and work in the Americas. Responding to new economic forces linking the Mediterranean and ... More

Arabs in America  

Akram Fouad Khater

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Between 1880 and 1940, more than 130,000 Arabs immigrated to the United States as part of the Great Migration of the long 19th century. They lived and worked across the breadth of the ... More

Black Women’s Internationalism from the Age of Revolutions to World War I  

Brandon R. Byrd

Black internationalism describes the political culture and intellectual practice forged in response to slavery, colonialism, and white imperialism. It is a historical and ongoing ... More

Bracero Guest Worker Program  

Ana Elizabeth Rosas

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The Car and the City  

David Blanke

The relationship between the car and the city remains complex and involves numerous private and public forces, innovations in technology, global economic fluctuations, and shifting ... More

The City Beautiful Movement, 1890–1920  

John D. Fairfield

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The City Beautiful movement arose in the 1890s in response to the accumulating dirt and disorder in industrial cities, which threatened economic efficiency and social peace. City Beautiful ... More

Communist Party USA, 1919 to 1957  

James R. Barrett

The largest and most important revolutionary socialist organization in US history, the Communist Party USA was always a minority influence. It reached considerable size and influence, ... More

Daily Life in the Jim Crow South, 1900–1945  

Jennifer Ritterhouse

Online publication date:
May 2018
Distinctive patterns of daily life defined the Jim Crow South. Contrary to many observers’ emphasis on de jure segregation—meaning racial separation demanded by law—neither law nor the ... More

Ellis Island Immigration Station  

Vincent J. Cannato

Online publication date:
Dec 2018
The Ellis Island Immigration Station, located in New York Harbor, opened in 1892 and closed in 1954. During peak years from the 1890s until the 1920s, the station processed an estimated ... More

Environmental and Conservation Movements in Metropolitan America  

Robert R. Gioielli

By the late 19th century, American cities like Chicago and New York were marvels of the industrializing world. The shock urbanization of the previous quarter century, however, brought on a ... More

The Failure of Labor Unionism in the US South  

Cody R. Melcher and Michael Goldfield

The failure of labor unions to succeed in the American South, largely because national unions proved unable or unwilling to confront white supremacy head on, offers an important key to ... More

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