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Bracero Guest Worker Program  

Ana Elizabeth Rosas

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. On ... More

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)  

Lee Sartain

The NAACP, established in 1909, was formed as an integrated organization to confront racism in the United States rather than seeing the issue as simply a southern problem. It is the longest ... More

Civil Rights and Schools: Tinker v. Des Moines  

Kathryn Schumaker

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
The 1969 Supreme Court ruling in Tinker v. Des Moines established that students in public elementary and secondary schools do not “shed their constitutional rights to freedom of speech or ... More

The Clinton Scandals  

Clodagh Harrington

Online publication date:
Apr 2020
The Clinton scandals have settled in the annals of American political history in the context of the era’s recurrent presidential misbehavior. Viewed through a historical lens, the ... More

The Equal Rights Amendment  

Robyn Muncy

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Legal History, Political History, Women's History
The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), designed to enshrine in the Constitution of the United States a guarantee of equal rights to women and men, has had a long and volatile history. When first ... More

Federal Indian Law  

N. Bruce Duthu

Online publication date:
Dec 2014
United States law recognizes American Indian tribes as distinct political bodies with powers of self-government. Their status as sovereign entities predates the formation of the United ... More

Federalism  

Alison L. LaCroix

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Federalism refers to the constitutional and political structure of the United States of America, according to which political power is divided among multiple levels of ... More

Freedom of the Press  

Sam Lebovic

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
According to the First Amendment of the US Constitution, Congress is barred from abridging the freedom of the press (“Congress shall make no law . . . abridging the freedom of speech, or of ... More

Gender Rights and American Employment  

Katherine Turk

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Throughout American history, gender, meaning notions of essential differences between women and men, has shaped how Americans have defined and engaged in productive activity. Work has been ... More

History of the U.S. Supreme Court  

Timothy S. Huebner

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Legal History
The Supreme Court of the United States stands at the head of the nation’s judicial system. Created in Article III of the Constitution of 1787 but obscured by the other branches of ... More

Human Rights and US Foreign Relations  

Sarah B. Snyder

Online publication date:
May 2016
In its formulation of foreign policy, the United States takes account of many priorities and factors, including national security concerns, economic interests, and alliance relationships. ... More

International Law and US Foreign Relations  

Brian Cuddy

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
International law is the set of rules, formally agreed by treaty or understood as customary, by which nation-states interact with each other in a form of international society. Across the ... More

Juvenile Justice in the United States  

David S. Tanenhaus

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Legal History, Political History, Urban History
Juvenile justice is a technical term that refers to the specific area of law and affiliated institutions, most notably the juvenile court, with jurisdiction over the cases of minors who are ... More

Latinos and the Law  

Allison Brownell Tirres

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Legal History, Cultural History, Latino History
Latino Americans have intersected with the law in complicated ways throughout American history. Latinos themselves are a diverse and heterogeneous racial, ethnic, and cultural group, with ... More

Law in Early America  

Sally Hadden

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Law in early America came from many sources. To focus exclusively on the English common law excludes other vital sources including (but not limited to) civil law, canon law, lex mercatoria ... More

Lobbying and Business Associations  

Benjamin C. Waterhouse

Political lobbying has always played a key role in American governance, but the concept of paid influence peddling has been marked by a persistent tension throughout the country’s history. ... More

Piracy in Colonial North America  

Mark G. Hanna

Online publication date:
May 2020
Historians of colonial British North America have largely relegated piracy to the marginalia of the broad historical narrative from settlement to revolution. However, piracy and unregulated ... More

Politics of Reproductive Rights in 20th-Century America  

Rickie Solinger

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Legal History, Political History, Women's History
The reproductive experiences of women and girls in the 20th-century United States followed historical patterns shaped by the politics of race and class. Laws and policies governing ... More

The Posse Comitatus Doctrine in Early America  

Gautham Rao

Courts and legislatures in colonial America and the early American republic developed and refined a power to compel civilians to assist peace and law enforcement officers in arresting ... More

Roe v. Wade  

Mary Ziegler

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Legal History, Women's History
Decided by the Supreme Court in 1973, Roe v. Wade legalized abortion across the United States. The 7-2 decision came at the end of a decades-long struggle to reform—and later ... More

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