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American Labor and Working-Class History, 1900–1945  

Jeffrey Helgeson

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
Early 20th century American labor and working-class history is a subfield of American social history that focuses attention on the complex lives of working people in a rapidly changing ... More

Arab Labor Migration in the Americas, 1880–1930  

Stacy D. Fahrenthold

Online publication date:
May 2019
Between 1880 and 1924, an estimated half million Arab migrants left the Ottoman Empire to live and work in the Americas. Responding to new economic forces linking the Mediterranean and ... More

Bracero Guest Worker Program  

Ana Elizabeth Rosas

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. On ... More

Communism and the Labor Movement  

Randi Storch

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Communist activists took a strong interest in American trade unions from the 1920s through the 1950s and played an important role in shaping the nature of the American union movement. ... More

Communist Party USA, 1919 to 1957  

James R. Barrett

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
The largest and most important revolutionary socialist organization in US history, the Communist Party USA was always a minority influence. It reached considerable size and influence, ... More

The Failure of Labor Unionism in the US South  

Cody R. Melcher and Michael Goldfield

Online publication date:
Nov 2019
The failure of labor unions to succeed in the American South, largely because national unions proved unable or unwilling to confront white supremacy head on, offers an important key to ... More

The First Red Scare  

Adam J. Hodges

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
The first Red Scare, which occurred in 1919–1920, emerged out of longer clashes in the United States over the processes of industrialization, immigration, and urbanization as well as ... More

The Great Depression  

Erik Gellman and Margaret Rung

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
From the late 1920s through the 1930s, countries on every inhabited continent suffered through a dramatic and wrenching economic contraction termed the Great Depression, an economic ... More

Municipal Housing in America  

Margaret Garb

Online publication date:
Sep 2015
Housing in America has long stood as a symbol of the nation’s political values and a measure of its economic health. In the 18th century, a farmhouse represented Thomas Jefferson’s ideal of ... More

The New Deal  

Wendy L. Wall

Online publication date:
Dec 2016
The New Deal generally refers to a set of domestic policies implemented by the administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in response to the crisis of the Great Depression. Propelled by ... More

Progressives and Progressivism in an Era of Reform  

Maureen A. Flanagan

The decades from the 1890s into the 1920s produced reform movements in the United States that resulted in significant changes to the country’s social, political, cultural, and economic ... More

Teacher Unionism in the 20th-Century United States  

Adam Mertz

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Since the turn of the 20th century, teachers have tried to find a balance between bettering their own career prospects as workers and educating their students as public servants. To reach a ... More

The Teamsters and the American Working Class  

Robert Bussel

Online publication date:
Jul 2019
During the latter half of the 20th century, the International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT) represented the labor organization most readily recognized by the American public. Rooted in the ... More

The Socialist Party of America, 1900–1929  

Elizabeth McKillen

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
One of the pervasive myths about the United States is that it has never had a socialist movement comparable to other industrialized nations. Yet in the early 20th century a vibrant ... More

West Virginia Mine Wars  

Lou Martin

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
In the early 20th century, West Virginia coal miners and mine operators fought a series of bloody battles that raged for two decades and prompted national debates over workers’ rights. ... More

Working-Class Anti-Unionism  

Dana M. Caldemeyer

Unlike the anti-unionism that runs through the ranks of employers, worker anti-unionism describes the workers who are opposed to or who work against unionization. Anti-union actions can be ... More

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