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Agriculture and the Environment  

Steven Stoll

During the Holocene, the present geological epoch, an increasing portion of humans began to manipulate the reproduction of plants and animals in a series of environmental practices known as ... More

The American Antinuclear Movement  

Paul Rubinson

Spanning countries across the globe, the antinuclear movement was the combined effort of millions of people to challenge the superpowers’ reliance on nuclear weapons during the Cold War. ... More

American Environmental Policy since 1964  

Richard N. L. Andrews

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Between 1964 and 2017, the United States adopted the concept of environmental policy as a new focus for a broad range of previously disparate policy issues affecting human interactions with ... More

American Film since 1945  

Joshua Gleich

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Over the past seventy years, the American film industry has transformed from mass-producing movies to producing a limited number of massive blockbuster movies on a global scale. Hollywood ... More

American Indian Activism after 1945  

Bradley Shreve

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
American Indian activism after 1945 was as much a part of the larger, global decolonization movement rooted in centuries of imperialism as it was a direct response to the ethos of civic ... More

American Opposition to South African Apartheid  

David L. Hostetter

American activists who challenged South African apartheid during the Cold War era extended their opposition to racial discrimination in the United States into world politics. US ... More

American Urban Planning Since 1850  

Harold Platt

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
As places of dense habitation, cities have always required coordination and planning. City planning has involved the design and construction of large-scale infrastructure projects to ... More

America’s Wars on Poverty and the Building of the Welfare State  

David Torstensson

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
On January 5, 2014—the fiftieth anniversary of President Lyndon Johnson’s launch of the War on Poverty—the New York Times asked a panel of opinion leaders a simple question: “Does the U.S. ... More

Antimonopoly in American Politics, 1945–2000  

Daniel Scroop

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Antimonopoly, meaning opposition to the exclusive or near-exclusive control of an industry or business by one or a very few businesses, played a relatively muted role in the history of the ... More

Appalachian War on Poverty and the Working Class  

Jessica Wilkerson

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
In 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson announced an unconditional “war on poverty.” On one of his first publicity tours promoting his antipoverty legislation, he traveled to cities and towns ... More

Arab-Israeli Wars and US Foreign Relations  

Seth Anziska

Online publication date:
Aug 2019
American policy toward the Arab-Israeli conflict has reflected dueling impulses at the heart of US-Middle East relations since World War II: growing support for Zionism and Israeli ... More

Argentina-US Relations  

Jennifer Hoyt

Relations between the United States and Argentina can be best described as a cautious embrace punctuated by moments of intense frustration. Although never the center of U.S.–Latin American ... More

Asian Americans and the Cold War  

Madeline Y. Hsu

Online publication date:
May 2015
The global political divides of the Cold War propelled the dismantling of Asian exclusion in ways that provided greater, if conditional, integration for Asian Americans, in a central aspect ... More

Bracero Guest Worker Program  

Ana Elizabeth Rosas

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. On ... More

The Car and the City  

David Blanke

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
The relationship between the car and the city remains complex and involves numerous private and public forces, innovations in technology, global economic fluctuations, and shifting cultural ... More

Caribbean-US Relations  

Tyson Reeder

The United States has shared an intricate and turbulent history with Caribbean islands and nations since its inception. In its relations with the Caribbean, the United States has displayed ... More

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)  

Lee Sartain

The NAACP, established in 1909, was formed as an integrated organization to confront racism in the United States rather than seeing the issue as simply a southern problem. It is the longest ... More

Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers Movement  

Matt Garcia

In September 1962, the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) held its first convention in Fresno, California, initiating a multiracial movement that would result in the creation of ... More

Chemical and Biological Weapons Policy  

Thomas I. Faith

Chemical and biological weapons represent two distinct types of munitions that share some common policy implications. While chemical weapons and biological weapons are different in terms of ... More

Chile-US Relations  

Patrick William Kelly

The relationship between Chile and the United States pivoted on the intertwined questions of how much political and economic influence Americans would exert over Chile and the degree to ... More

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