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Andrew Johnson and the Legacy of the Civil War  

Elizabeth R. Varon

Published Online:
Mar 2016
Perhaps no other American leader has experienced so precipitous a fall from grace as Andrew Johnson, seventeenth president of the United States (1865–1869). During the Civil War, Johnson ... More

The Anti-Chinese Massacre in Los Angeles as a Reconstruction-Era Event  

Victor Jew

Long regarded as a violent outburst significant mainly for California history, the 1871 Los Angeles anti-Chinese massacre raises themes central to America’s Civil War Reconstruction era ... More

The Black Freedom Struggle in the Urban North  

Thomas J. Sugrue

Published Online:
Dec 2018
Racism in the United States has long been a national problem, not a regional phenomenon. The long and well-documented history of slavery, Jim Crow laws, and racial violence in the South ... More

Contraband Camps and the African American Refugee Experience during the Civil War  

Chandra Manning

Published Online:
Dec 2017
In May 1861, three enslaved men who were determined not to be separated from their families ran to Fort Monroe, Virginia. Their flight led to the phenomenon of Civil War contraband camps. ... More

Federalism  

Alison L. LaCroix

Federalism refers to the constitutional and political structure of the United States of America, according to which political power is divided among multiple levels of ... More

The Northern Homefront  

Nicole Etcheson and Cortney Cantrell

Published Online:
Aug 2016
During the Civil War, the entire North constituted the homefront, an area largely removed from the din and horror of combat. With a few exceptions of raids and battles such as Gettysburg, ... More

The Posse Comitatus Doctrine in Early America  

Gautham Rao

Courts and legislatures in colonial America and the early American republic developed and refined a power to compel civilians to assist peace and law enforcement officers in arresting ... More

Sherman’s March in American History and Cultural Memory  

Anne Sarah Rubin

Published Online:
Oct 2017
Sherman’s March, more accurately known as the Georgia and Carolinas Campaigns, cut a swath across three states in 1864–1865. It was one of the most significant campaigns of the war, making ... More

Slavery in North American Cities  

Leslie Harris

The patterns of urban slavery in North American and pre-Civil War US cities reveal the ways in which individual men and women, as well as businesses, institutions, and governmental bodies ... More

Soldiers in the Union Army  

Lorien Foote

Published Online:
Feb 2018
Soldiers enlisted in the Union Army from every state in the Union and the Confederacy. The initial volunteers were motivated to preserve the accomplishments of the American Revolution and ... More

The United States Civil War in an Atlantic Context  

Don H. Doyle

America’s Civil War became part of a much larger international crisis as European powers, happy to see the experiment in self-government fail in America’s “Great Republic,” took advantage ... More

Thomas Jefferson and US Foreign Relations  

Francis D. Cogliano

Thomas Jefferson was a key architect of early American foreign policy. He had a clear vision of the place of the new republic in the world, which he articulated in a number of writings and ... More

Urban Destruction during the Civil War  

Megan Kate Nelson

During the American Civil War, Union and Confederate commanders made the capture and destruction of enemy cities a central feature of their military campaigns. They did so for two reasons. ... More

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