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Anna May Wong and Asian American Popular Culture  

Shirley Lim

Anna May Wong (January 3, 1905–February 3, 1961) was the first Chinese American movie star and the first Asian American actress to gain international recognition. Wong broke the codes of ... More

Arabs in America  

Akram Fouad Khater

Published Online:
Jan 2019
Between 1880 and 1940, more than 130,000 Arabs immigrated to the United States as part of the Great Migration of the long 19th century. They lived and worked across the breadth of the ... More

Asian American Literature, U.S. Empire, and the Eaton Sisters  

Edward Tang

Published Online:
Jul 2015
The Eaton sisters, Edith Maude (b. 1865–d. 1914) and Winnifred (b. 1875–d. 1954), were biracial authors who wrote under their respective pseudonyms, Sui Sin Far and Onoto Watanna. Raised ... More

Black Women and Beauty Culture in 20th-Century America  

Maxine Leeds Craig

Published Online:
Nov 2017
Black beauty culture developed in the context of widespread disparagement of black men and women in images produced by whites, and black women’s exclusion from mainstream cultural ... More

Childbirth and Breastfeeding in 20th-Century America  

Jessica Martucci

Published Online:
Sep 2017
By the end of the 19th century, the medical specialties of gynecology and obstetrics established a new trend in women’s healthcare. In the 20th century, more and more American mothers gave ... More

Domestic Workers in U.S. History  

Vanessa May

Published Online:
May 2017
Domestic work was, until 1940, the largest category of women’s paid labor. Despite the number of women who performed domestic labor for pay, the wages and working conditions were often ... More

Gender Rights and American Employment  

Katherine Turk

Throughout American history, gender, meaning notions of essential differences between women and men, has shaped how Americans have defined and engaged in productive activity. Work has been ... More

Gender Roles, Women’s Rights, and the Polarization of American Politics in the Late 20th Century  

Marjorie J. Spruill

Published Online:
Jan 2019
The late 20th century saw gender roles transformed as the so-called Second Wave of American feminism that began in the 1960s gained support. By the early 1970s public opinion increasingly ... More

LGBTQ Issues and U.S. Foreign Relations  

Phil Tiemeyer

The impact of LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) issues on U.S. foreign relations is an understudied area, and only a handful of historians have addressed these issues ... More

New Women in Early 20th-Century America  

Einav Rabinovitch-Fox

Published Online:
Aug 2017
In late 19th- and early 20th-century America, a new image of womanhood emerged that began to shape public views and understandings of women’s role in society. Identified by ... More

Politics of Reproductive Rights in 20th-Century America  

Rickie Solinger

Published Online:
Nov 2017
The reproductive experiences of women and girls in the 20th-century United States followed historical patterns shaped by the politics of race and class. Laws and policies governing ... More

Race, Gender, and Sex Education in 20th-Century America  

Courtney Q. Shah

Published Online:
Aug 2017
A concerted movement to promote sex education in America emerged in the early 20th century as part of a larger public health movement that also responded to the previous century’s concerns ... More

Roe v. Wade  

Mary Ziegler

Published Online:
Jul 2017
Decided by the Supreme Court in 1973, Roe v. Wade legalized abortion across the United States. The 7-2 decision came at the end of a decades-long struggle to reform—and later ... More

The 1960s  

Robert O. Self

Few decades in American history reverberate with as much historical reach or glow as brightly in living mythology as the 1960s. During those years Americans reanimated and reinvented the ... More

The Salem Witch Trials  

Emerson W. Baker

The Salem Witch Trials are one of the best known, most studied, and most important events in early American history. The afflictions started in Salem Village (present-day Danvers), ... More

Same-Sex Love among Early American Women  

Rachel Hope Cleves

Published Online:
Jul 2018
The task of recovering the history of same-sex love among early American women faces daunting challenges of definition and sources. Modern conceptions of same-sex sexuality did not exist ... More

The Woman Suffrage Movement in the United States  

Rebecca J. Mead

Woman suffragists in the United States engaged in a sustained, difficult, and multigenerational struggle: seventy-two years elapsed between the Seneca Falls convention (1848) and the ... More

Women and Politics in the Era of the American Revolution  

Sheila L. Skemp

Published Online:
Jun 2016
Historians once assumed that, because women in the era of the American Revolution could not vote and showed very little interest in attaining the franchise, they were essentially ... More

Women and Religion in Colonial North America and the United States  

Catherine A. Brekus

Historically, women in colonial North America and the United States have been deeply influenced by their religious traditions. Even though world religions like Judaism, Christianity, ... More

Women and Reproduction in the United States during the 19th Century  

Shannon K. Withycombe

Throughout the 19th century, American women experienced vast changes regarding possibilities for childbirth and for enhancing or restricting fertility control. At the beginning of the ... More

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