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The American War for Independence as a Revolutionary War  

Michael A. McDonnell

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
The American War for Independence lasted eight years. It was one of the longest and bloodiest wars in America’s history, and yet it was not such a protracted conflict merely because the ... More

Banking and Finance from the Revolution to the Civil War  

Sharon Ann Murphy

In creating a new nation, the United States also had to create a financial system from scratch. During the period from the Revolution to the Civil War, the country experimented with ... More

Contagious Disease and Public Health in the American City  

Daniel Wilson

Contagious diseases have long posed a public health challenge for cities, going back to the ancient world. Diseases traveled over trade routes from one city to another. Cities were also ... More

The Creek Confederacy  

Andrew Frank

Online publication date:
Mar 2016
The Creek Confederacy was a loose coalition of ethnically and linguistically diverse Native American towns that slowly coalesced as a political entity in the 18th and early 19th centuries. ... More

The Enlightenment and America  

John M. Dixon

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
The Enlightenment, a complex cultural phenomenon that lasted approximately from the late seventeenth century until the early nineteenth century, contained a dynamic mix of contrary beliefs ... More

Federalism  

Alison L. LaCroix

Federalism refers to the constitutional and political structure of the United States of America, according to which political power is divided among multiple levels of ... More

Fur Trades  

Carolyn Podruchny and Stacy Nation-Knapper

Online publication date:
Nov 2016
From the 15th century to the present, the trade in animal fur has been an economic venture with far-reaching consequences for both North Americans and Europeans (in which North Americans of ... More

Genocide and American Indian History  

Jeffrey Ostler

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
The issue of genocide and American Indian history has been contentious. Many writers see the massive depopulation of the indigenous population of the Americas after 1492 as a clear-cut case ... More

Haiti and the Early United States  

Philippe R. Girard

Haiti (known as Saint-Domingue until it gained its independence from France in 1804) had a noted economic and political impact on the United States during the era of the American ... More

Housing Policy Across the United States  

Kristin M. Szylvian

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Federal housing policy has been primarily devoted to maintaining the economic stability and profitability of the private sector real estate, household finance, and home-building and supply ... More

Ideas of Race in Early America  

Sean P. Harvey

“Race,” as a concept denoting a fundamental division of humanity and usually encompassing cultural as well as physical traits, was crucial in early America. It provided the foundation for ... More

Immigration to American Cities, 1800–1924  

Hidetaka Hirota

Between 1820 and 1924, nearly thirty-six million immigrants entered the United States. Prior to the Civil War, the vast majority of immigrants were northern and western Europeans, though ... More

Indian Slavery  

Christina Snyder

Online publication date:
Dec 2014
The history of American slavery began long before the first Africans arrived at Jamestown in 1619. Evidence from archaeology and oral tradition indicates that for hundreds, perhaps ... More

Infrastructure: Streets, Roads, and Highways  

Peter Norton

By serving travelers and commerce, roads and streets unite people and foster economic growth. But as they develop, roads and streets also disrupt old patterns, upset balances of power, and ... More

Mapping Native North America  

James Taylor Carson

The European invasion of the continent to which we now refer as North America unfolded in several different ways, each with its own particular implications. Yet no matter their differences, ... More

The Posse Comitatus Doctrine in Early America  

Gautham Rao

Courts and legislatures in colonial America and the early American republic developed and refined a power to compel civilians to assist peace and law enforcement officers in arresting ... More

Print, the Press, and the American Revolution  

Robert G. Parkinson

According to David Ramsay, one of the first historians of the American Revolution, “in establishing American independence, the pen and press had merit equal to that of the sword.” Because ... More

The Role of Congress in the History of US Foreign Relations  

Clay Silver Katsky

While presidents have historically been the driving force behind foreign policy decision-making, Congress has used its constitutional authority to influence the process. The nation’s ... More

Same-Sex Love among Early American Women  

Rachel Hope Cleves

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The task of recovering the history of same-sex love among early American women faces daunting challenges of definition and sources. Modern conceptions of same-sex sexuality did not exist in ... More

Tecumseh and the Shawnee Resistance Movement  

Stephen Warren

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Described as a “chief among chiefs” by the British, and by his arch-rival, William Henry Harrison, as “one of those uncommon geniuses which spring up occasionally to produce revolutions and ... More

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