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A History of Philippine-American Relations  

Patricio N. Abinales

Online publication date:
Jul 2017
An enduring resilience characterizes Philippine–American relationship for several reasons. For one, there is an unusual colonial relationship wherein the United States took control of the ... More

The American Antinuclear Movement  

Paul Rubinson

Spanning countries across the globe, the antinuclear movement was the combined effort of millions of people to challenge the superpowers’ reliance on nuclear weapons during the Cold War. ... More

American Environmental Diplomacy  

Kurk Dorsey

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
From its inception as a nation in 1789, the United States has engaged in an environmental diplomacy that has included attempts to gain control of resources, as well as formal diplomatic ... More

The American Experience during World War II  

Michael C. C. Adams

On the eve of World War II many Americans were reluctant to see the United States embark on overseas involvements. Yet the Japanese attack on the U.S. Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor on ... More

American Foreign Economic Policy  

Daniel Sargent

Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Foreign economic policy involves the mediation and management of economic flows across borders. Over two and a half centuries, the context for U.S. foreign economic policy has transformed. ... More

American Foreign Policy and the Space Race  

Teasel Muir-Harmony

The Soviet Union’s successful launch of the first artificial satellite Sputnik 1 on October 4, 1957, captured global attention and achieved the initial victory in what would soon become ... More

American Military Assistance Programs since 1945  

Jeremy Kuzmarov

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Military assistance programs have been crucial instruments of American foreign policy since World War II, valued by policymakers for combating internal subversion in the “free world,” ... More

American Military Strategy in the Vietnam War, 1965–1973  

Gregory A. Daddis

Online publication date:
Mar 2015
For nearly a decade, American combat soldiers fought in South Vietnam to help sustain an independent, noncommunist nation in Southeast Asia. After U.S. troops departed in 1973, the collapse ... More

American Opposition to South African Apartheid  

David L. Hostetter

American activists who challenged South African apartheid during the Cold War era extended their opposition to racial discrimination in the United States into world politics. US ... More

Andrew Jackson and US Foreign Relations  

J.M. Opal

Online publication date:
Aug 2018
The foreign relations of the Jacksonian age reflected Andrew Jackson’s own sense of the American “nation” as long victimized by non-white enemies and weak politicians. His goal as president ... More

Anti-Imperialism  

Robert David Johnson

Online publication date:
Oct 2015
The birth of the United States through a successful colonial revolution created a unique nation-state in which anti-imperialist sentiment existed from the nation’s founding. Three broad ... More

Arab-Israeli Wars and US Foreign Policy  

Seth Anziska

American policy toward the Arab-Israeli conflict has reflected dueling impulses at the heart of US-Middle East relations since World War II: growing support for Zionism and Israeli ... More

Asian International Adoptions  

Allison Varzally

Although Americans have adopted and continue to adopt children from all over the world, Asian minors have immigrated and joined American families in the greatest numbers and most shaped our ... More

Black Women’s Internationalism from the Age of Revolutions to World War I  

Brandon R. Byrd

Black internationalism describes the political culture and intellectual practice forged in response to slavery, colonialism, and white imperialism. It is a historical and ongoing collective ... More

The Constitution of the United States and Foreign Relations  

Martin S. Flaherty

Online publication date:
Oct 2019
Foreign relations under the US Constitution starts with the paradox, also seen in domestic matters, of relatively scant text providing guidance for the exercise of vast power. Founding ... More

Counterinsurgency Warfare in Theory and Practice  

Celeste Gventer

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The Cuban Revolution  

Michael J. Bustamante

The Cuban Revolution transformed the largest island nation of the Caribbean into a flashpoint of the Cold War. After overthrowing US-backed ruler Fulgencio Batista in early 1959, Fidel ... More

The Democratic Party and US Foreign Relations  

Jeffrey Bloodworth

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Will Rogers understood the confounding nature of the Democratic Party. In noting that “Democrats never agree on anything, that’s why they’re Democrats,” the Oklahoma humorist highlighted a ... More

Dwight D. Eisenhower and American Foreign Policy  

Richard V. Damms

Probably no American president was more thoroughly versed in matters of national security and foreign policy before entering office than Dwight David Eisenhower. As a young military ... More

Gender in US Foreign Policy  

Heather Stur

Throughout US history, Americans have used ideas about gender to understand power, international relations, military behavior, and the conduct of war. Since Joan Wallach Scott called on ... More

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