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date: 26 September 2022

The Early Iron Age of Botswanalocked

The Early Iron Age of Botswanalocked

  • Catrien van WaardenCatrien van WaardenIndependent researcher


Agro-pastoralists arrived in Botswana in the 6th and 7th centuries, five groups of the Urewe Tradition of the Bantu migrations, of which two of the Nkope Branch or Central Stream, two of the Kwale Branch or Eastern Stream, and the fifth settled in the zone of contact between these two branches. A sixth group had links with the Naviundu Tradition in the southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo. There is no evidence of a Western Stream of the Bantu migrations, also known as the Kalundu Tradition, in Botswana. During the second phase of the Early Iron Age, c. 800–1000 ce, east-central Botswana was dominated by the Zhizo culture.


  • Archaeology

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