"Within 150 years of its formation, Ming Taizu’s fiscal system encompassing in-kind tax payments, conscripted labor service, and remuneration to officials and soldiers in goods rather than money gave way to a thriving commercialized economy of urban and rural markets, cash-cropping, specialized handicraft industries, and extensive interregional and illegal overseas trade, as well as a certain social fluidity that allowed merchants easier access to wealth and status. ..." – By Harriet Zurndorfer
"During the first several centuries after the conquest, even while Arab rulers were assimilating Persian imperial ideas and bureaucratic techniques, a linguistic revolution was quietly taking shape—the emergence of New Persian, a synthesis of Middle Persian and Arabic. ..." – By Richard Eaton
In April 2021, more than 121 new 7 revised articles have been published on the Oxford Research Encyclopedias platform. Explore the recently published articles now.
On May 28, the Oxford Research Encyclopedias of Business and Management, Economics and Finance, and Neuroscience will be available via subscription. After a successful free period during development, the OREs provide in-depth overviews of the major areas of research and will continue to grow with the field over time. If you're a librarian, explore Subscriber Services to learn how to provide access to the OREs for your institution. If you're not a librarian, you can recommend the OREs to your librarian here.
With today’s overabundance of information, and misinformation, students and researchers alike can be overwhelmed in identifying what’s trustworthy, what’s up-to-date, and what’s accurate..
Working with international communities of scholars across all fields of study, we are developing new comprehensive collections of in-depth, peer-reviewed summaries on an ever-growing range of topics..
Oxford University Press offers a variety of tools to help you promote your access to the Oxford Research Encyclopedias and get the most out of these resources.
Browse recently published articles by month, including summaries and previews of forthcoming full-text articles.