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Modern Cambodia Since 1863  

John Tully

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Modern Cambodian history begins with the creation of the French Protectorate in 1863. Until the 15th century, Cambodia was a regional great power, but by the late 18th it faced extinction ... More

Modern Hong Kong  

Steve Tsang

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Hong Kong entered its modern era when it became a British overseas territory in 1841. In its early years as a Crown Colony, it suffered from corruption and racial segregation but grew ... More

Modern Kyrgyzstan  

Rafis Abazov

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Modern Kyrgyzstan emerged as a political entity in 1924 when the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast (KKAO) was established as an autonomous oblast (province) under the jurisdiction of the ... More

Modern Nepal  

Marie Lecomte-Tilouine

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Within the study of the modern period of Nepali history, history is considered here both as a narrative with its internal logic, notably the periodization of history produced by Nepali ... More

Modern Palestine  

Ilan Pappe

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Subject:
Middle East
The history of Modern Palestine begins somewhere in the 19th century. Writing it, or about it, is a huge challenge. It is very hard to distinguish between the history and the ... More

Modern Saudi Arabia  

Fred H. Lawson

Online publication date:
May 2017
Subject:
Middle East
Modern Saudi Arabia emerged in the 1920s as the successor to a collection of local political entities on the Arabian peninsula, whose histories are only starting to be investigated. ... More

Modern Tajikistan  

Muriel Atkin

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Tajikistan became an independent country in 1991, but it also owes its existence as an arbitrary creation to the central Soviet authorities. Since the Soviet era the term “Tajik” has been ... More

Modern Uzbekistan  

Adeeb Khalid

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
Uzbekistan was created in 1924 as a result of the so-called national-territorial delimitation of Soviet Central Asia. Although created in the context of the implementation of the Soviet ... More

Monetary History of East Asia  

Ulrich Theobald

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
East Asian monetary systems were traditionally based on commodity monies, the most famous of which were round copper coins (Cash) with a square central hole, and silver ingots (Tael, from ... More

Mu Dan’s Poetry as a History of Modern China  

Huiwen Helen Zhang

An expeditionary force soldier. A jungle war survivor. A patriot who traded opportunities in the United States for a tedious journey home to the newly founded People’s Republic of China. A ... More

The Mughal Empire  

Michael H. Fisher

Founded in 1526, the Mughal Empire expanded during the late 16th and 17th centuries across almost the entire Indian subcontinent (except for the southern peninsular tip). At its peak, the ... More

Nationalism and Minorities in China  

Sabine Dabringhaus

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Subject:
China, Political
China’s minority policy after 1949 combined the Qing legacy with a socialist affirmative strategy. The concept of a multiethnic Chinese state derived from Qing ideology and policy in the ... More

Nomadic Warfare before Firearms  

Timothy May

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Nomadic warfare in the Eurasian steppes centered on a mobile horse-archer whose composite bow was surpassed by firearms only in the 17th and 18th centuries. Until the rise of effective ... More

Online Research Resources for South Asian History  

Aruna Pulipaka Magier

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Because so much of South Asia’s archival and primary source materials as well as precolonial and colonial-era published sources traditionally referred to by historians reside in physical ... More

Opium in China  

Yangwen Zheng

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Opium was used as a medicinal herb during the Tang-Song dynastic era, if not earlier, but this medicinal role was transformed during the Ming dynasty as it became an ingredient in ... More

The Origins and Growth of the Chinese Communist Movement  

Xiaohong Xu

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Subject:
China, Political
When the origins and development of the Chinese Communist Movement before it seized the state power in 1949 are examined, while conventionally the movement is periodized according to its ... More

Origins of British India  

Tirthankar Roy

The origin of British India can be traced to warfare in 18th-century Europe and India, trade-related conflicts and disputes, and the East India Company’s business model. The state that ... More

The Ottoman Empire and the Indian Ocean  

A. C. S. Peacock

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
With its conquest of the Arab lands in the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire (1300–1923) came to control some of the major entrepots of the Indian Ocean trade in the west. This expansion, ... More

Ottoman-Russian Relations  

Adrian Brisku

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Four-centuries-long encounters between the Ottoman Empire and the Grand Duchy of Muscovy/Russian Empire point to complex relations that have been triggered and defined mostly by ... More

Parsi Traders in Western India, 1600–1900  

Lakshmi Subramanian

The Parsi community enjoyed a special status in western India as enterprising traders, who were quick to appreciate the advantages of the British connection especially in driving a huge ... More

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