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Asia in the Gunpowder Revolution  

Scott C. Levi

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Central Asia, Military
Contrary to long-held notions that gunpowder weapons technologies were devised in the West and gradually transmitted eastward into Asia, more recent scholarship indicates that innovations ... More

The Indian Army, 1850–1950  

Anirudh Deshpande

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Military
In 1850, the armed forces of the English East India Company were comprised of three Presidency Sepoy Armies and the Bombay Marine sometimes called the Indian Navy. A British Army garrison ... More

Port Cities and Islamic Insurgency across Southeast Asia, 1850–1913  

Joshua Gedacht

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Port cities have long played a critical role in the circulation of peoples, commodities, and ideas within and across the maritime spaces of Southeast Asia. Although an indelible component ... More

Japanese Empire in Taiwan  

Paul D. Barclay

Online publication date:
Jun 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Japan, Imperial Japan, 1905-45, Military
On April 17, 1895, the Qing dynasty ceded the province of Taiwan to Japan in the Treaty of Shimonoseki, ending the Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895). Thereafter, Taiwan was governed as a colony ... More

Military Technology and Organization in Imperial China  

Peter Lorge

Warfare and the military were at the center of the imperial Chinese state, though their significance was downplayed by government officials and the literati. Chinese dynasties fielded ... More

The Mongol invasion of Eastern Europe in 1223, 1237-1240  

Alexander V. Maiorov

Online publication date:
Aug 2020
The task of the tümens of Jebe and Sübedei’s raid to Europe (1221–1223) was not limited to reconnaissance only. This raid was part of Chinggis Khan’s general expansion strategy involving ... More

Nomadic Warfare before Firearms  

Timothy May

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Central Asia, Military
Nomadic warfare in the Eurasian steppes centered on a mobile horse-archer whose composite bow was surpassed by firearms only in the 17th and 18th centuries. Until the rise of effective ... More

Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s Invasion of the Chosŏn Kingdom, 1592–1598  

Nam-lin Hur

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Military
In the fourth month of 1592, and at the direction of Toyotomi Hideyoshi—the feudal baron, or daimyo, who unified the Warring States (Sengoku) across the Japanese Archipelago—a massive force ... More

Warfare and Arms of the Early Iron Age Steppe Nomads  

Oleksandr Symonenko

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
At the turn of Bronze and Early Iron Ages, the nomads of the Eurasian steppe brought about a new and progressive phenomenon in world military history: cavalry warfare. Spanning the vast ... More

Warfare in Premodern Southeast Asia  

Michael W. Charney

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Archaeology, Military, Southeast Asia
Warfare in premodern Southeast Asia, roughly that fought up until the end of the 19th century, was shaped by the environment across the region. Maritime trade connections brought the ... More

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