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Local Elites and Scholarship in Late Imperial China  

Steven B. Miles

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Before the end of the Tang dynasty, cultural production was largely a court-centered activity. This began to change as the nature of China’s political, social, and cultural elite, the ... More

Manchuria in Modern East Asia, 1600s–1949  

Dan Shao

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Subject:
China
Manchuria is an English geographical term that, in the past three centuries or so, has referred to the region that approximately overlaps the region of Northeast China (Liaoning, Jilin, and ... More

Military Technology and Organization in Imperial China  

Peter Lorge

Warfare and the military were at the center of the imperial Chinese state, though their significance was downplayed by government officials and the literati. Chinese dynasties fielded ... More

Modern Hong Kong  

Steve Tsang

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Hong Kong entered its modern era when it became a British overseas territory in 1841. In its early years as a Crown Colony, it suffered from corruption and racial segregation but grew ... More

Mu Dan’s Poetry as a History of Modern China  

Huiwen Helen Zhang

An expeditionary force soldier. A jungle war survivor. A patriot who traded opportunities in the United States for a tedious journey home to the newly founded People’s Republic of China. A ... More

Nationalism and Minorities in China  

Sabine Dabringhaus

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Subject:
China, Political
China’s minority policy after 1949 combined the Qing legacy with a socialist affirmative strategy. The concept of a multiethnic Chinese state derived from Qing ideology and policy in the ... More

Opium in China  

Yangwen Zheng

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Opium was used as a medicinal herb during the Tang-Song dynastic era, if not earlier, but this medicinal role was transformed during the Ming dynasty as it became an ingredient in ... More

The Origins and Growth of the Chinese Communist Movement  

Xiaohong Xu

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Subject:
China, Political
When the origins and development of the Chinese Communist Movement before it seized the state power in 1949 are examined, while conventionally the movement is periodized according to its ... More

Power and Trade between Qing China and Chosŏn Korea  

Nianshen Song

Scholars often regard the Qing-Korean relationship as the most representative instance of the so-called tributary system, the Sino-centric hierarchical world order in early modern East ... More

Print Culture and the Circulation of Knowledge in Imperial China, 8th–17th Centuries  

Lucille Chia

Print culture in imperial China spans over twelve hundred years, from the late 7th century ce to the end of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. During this long period, mechanical reproduction of ... More

Publishing and Popular Literature in Imperial China  

Cynthia Brokaw

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Although popular literature circulated in manuscript from very early in Chinese history, the invention of woodblock printing or xylography in the 7th century greatly facilitated the ... More

The Qara Khitai  

Michal Biran

The Qara Khitai or Western Liao dynasty (1124–1218) ruled in Central Asia in the period that preceded the rise of Chinggis Khan. Founded by Khitan refugees who escaped from north China when ... More

Schools and Learning in Imperial China  

Linda Walton

From the consolidation of the Han empire (206 bce–220 ce) through the collapse of the Qing (1644–1911), ideas about education associated with Confucius (c. 551–479 bce) and his followers ... More

Spatial Organization of Chinese Imperial Government and Society  

Nicolas Tackett

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Despite important continuities in imperial practices and bureaucratic structures, the spatial organization of Chinese government and society evolved in significant ways over the course of ... More

Taiwan and Modern China  

Emma J. Teng

The China–Taiwan relationship continues to be one of the most highly fraught international political issues in the post-Cold War era, and a potential flashpoint in US–China affairs. Lying ... More

Tea, Porcelain, and Silk: Chinese Exports to the West in the Early Modern Period  

Ronald C. Po

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Tracing the social lives of tea, porcelain, and silk, it is discernible that the world had been living with commodities made in and exported from China for a fairly long period of time. ... More

The 1989 Tiananmen Movement and Its Aftermath  

Rowena Xiaoqing He

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
In spring 1989, millions of Chinese took to the streets calling for reforms. The nationwide movement, highlighted by a hunger strike in Tiananmen Square in Beijing, ended on June 4 with the ... More

Tibet and Modern China  

Xiuyu Wang

Online publication date:
May 2020
Modern relations between Tibet and the Chinese state retained many previous patterns of connection and contestation in trade, diplomacy, and religion, but also exhibited new and heightened ... More

Trade in the East and South China Seas, 600 CE to 1800 CE  

Tamara H. Bentley

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
In the period from 600 ce to 1800 ce, the countries bordering the East and South China Seas were in frequent maritime communication, sharing in the process cultural practices and ... More

Treaty Ports and the Foreign Community in Modern China  

Pär Cassel

Online publication date:
May 2018
Unlike other parts of the non-European world, China was never fully colonized by the Western imperial powers during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Instead, the Western powers built ... More

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