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India’s Middle Class  

Sanjay Joshi

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
The category “middle class” can refer to quite different social entities. In the United States, it is often used as a synonym for “ordinary folk.” In the United Kingdom it references an ... More

Indonesia’s Colonial Sugar Industry  

Roger Knight

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Colonial Indonesia’s sugar industry, developed under Dutch and Sino-Indonesian auspices over a period of almost three centuries, beginning c. 1650, evolved into one which exhibited a ... More

Intellectual Trends in Imperial China  

Chang Woei Ong

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
In a letter to his friend Wang Hui王回 (1023–1065), the great Song dynasty (960–1279) politician, scholar, thinker, and writer Wang Anshi王安石 (1021–1086) makes a distinction between the ... More

Inter-State Water Disputes in South India  

Leela Fernandes

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Subject:
South Asia, Urban
Water-related disputes in India have been a fraught area of contestation between state governments in the post-colonial period. Since the late 20th century, much of this conflict has been ... More

Islam in Southeast Asia to c. 1800  

R. Michael Feener

Southeast Asia has been a historical crossroads of major world civilizations for nearly two millennia. Muslim traders were sojourning along the shores of the Indonesian archipelago from at ... More

Port Cities and Islamic Insurgency across Southeast Asia, 1850–1913  

Joshua Gedacht

Port cities have long played a critical role in the circulation of peoples, commodities, and ideas within and across the maritime spaces of Southeast Asia. Although an indelible component ... More

The Ismaili of Central Asia  

Daniel Beben

The Ismailis are one of the largest Muslim minority populations of Central Asia, and they make up the second largest Shiʿi Muslim community globally. First emerging in the second half of ... More

Japanese Empire and Pan-Asianism  

Sven Saaler

The Japanese colonial empire was composed of territories adjacent to the Japanese archipelago, ranging from Southern Sakhalin in the north to Taiwan in the south. Unlike most European ... More

Japanese Empire in Hokkaido  

Philip Seaton

The temporal span of the Japanese Empire is most commonly given as 1895–1945, from the acquisition of Taiwan following Japan’s victory in the First Sino-Japanese War to Japan’s defeat in ... More

Japanese Empire in Manchuria  

Emer O'Dwyer

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
Subject:
Japan, Political
China’s three northeastern provinces (Fengtian, Heilongjiang, and Jilin) were transfigured by Japanese imperialism in the opening decades of the 20th century. South Manchuria and the ... More

Kachchhis in East Africa  

Chhaya Goswami

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
With a distinct geographic setting encompassing the vast grassland of Banni, the white salty desert expanse, hilly mass, and a long coastline, the northwestern Indian region of Kachchh is ... More

Kashmir: From Princely State to Insurgency  

Mridu Rai

Paradise lost, on fire, or on a river of hell: purple prose abounds in descriptions of Kashmir today. But in this instance, the hyperbole may be alarmingly close to reality. Since ... More

The Kazakh Khanate  

Joo-Yup Lee

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The Kazakh Khanate was a Chinggisid nomadic state that ruled the eastern Qipchaq Steppe (Dasht-i Qipchāq), a steppe zone that roughly corresponds to modern-day Kazakhstan, during the ... More

Khojas of Kashgar  

Alexandre Papas

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
The Khojas of Kashgar name a Sufi lineage, which became a ruling dynasty in eastern Turkestan or present-day Xinjiang in western China. Founded by the Samarkandi spiritual master Ahmad ... More

Kievan Rus’ and Muscovy Under the Riurikids  

Janet Martin

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
The medieval state of Kievan Rus’ took shape in the late 10th century when Vladimir (Volodimer), reportedly a descendant of the semi-legendary Ri͡urik, established his exclusive rule over ... More

The Kök Türk Empires  

Michael R. Drompp

Online publication date:
May 2018
The people who called themselves Türk (Chinese Tujue突厥) appear in historical records only a few years before they overthrow their political masters in the middle of the 6th century CE and ... More

Land Acquisition and Dispossession in India  

Debjani Bhattacharyya

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Contemporary India is among the top seven countries in the world witnessing the rise of mega urban regions, infrastructural expansion by government and private entities, and acceleration ... More

Land and Water in Tsarist and Early Soviet Central Asia  

Beatrice Penati

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Precipitation and elevation shape land and water usage in Central Asia, distinguishing the southern irrigated oases from the steppes, deserts, and prairies, where instead nomadic ... More

Literary History of Bengal, 8th-19th century AD  

Thibaut d'Hubert

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
The literary history of Bengal is characterized by a multilingual ecology that nurtured the development of Middle Bengali literature. It is around the turn of the second millennium, during ... More

Local Elites and Scholarship in Late Imperial China  

Steven B. Miles

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Before the end of the Tang dynasty, cultural production was largely a court-centered activity. This began to change as the nature of China’s political, social, and cultural elite, the ... More

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