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You are looking at  61-80 of 123 articles

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The Maldives as an Indian Ocean Crossroads  

Eva-Maria Knoll

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
The Maldives form the central part of an underwater mountain range in the center of the Indian Ocean, creating a crossroads for seafaring, migration, trade, and warfare. Because of this ... More

Manchuria in Modern East Asia, 1600s–1949  

Dan Shao

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Subject:
China
Manchuria is an English geographical term that, in the past three centuries or so, has referred to the region that approximately overlaps the region of Northeast China (Liaoning, Jilin, ... More

Maritime Archaeology of the Indian Ocean  

Himanshu Prabha Ray

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The interface between the sea and the land and the communities that have historically traversed the Indian Ocean form the focus of this article. Maritime communities have been sustained by ... More

The Medieval Khwājagān and the Early Naqshbandīyya  

Ali Gibran Siddiqui

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The Khwājagān (lit. “Masters”) were a constellation of Ṣūfīs in 13th- to 16th-century Mawara an-Nahr and Khurasan. The Naqshbandīyya were Ṣūfīs from among the Khwājagān who followed the ... More

The Medieval Uyghurs of the 8th through 14th Centuries  

Michael C. Brose

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Subject:
Central Asia
The medieval Uyghurs became a political entity in the mid-8th century when they established their steppe empire as the inheritors of the ancient Türk steppe tribal confederation. They ... More

Meiji Revolution  

Hiroshi Mitani

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
The Meiji Revolution (1853–1890) transformed Japan from a double-headed federation state with hereditary status system into a unitary monarchy that afforded greater rights and freedoms to ... More

Modern Armenia  

Simon Payaslian

The Armenian people entered the modern era with their historic lands of more than three millennia divided between two empires—the Ottoman and Persian empires. The Ottomans ruled the ... More

Modern Bangladesh  

Iftekhar Iqbal

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Bangladesh is a relatively young state with an agile political heart. Its emergence in 1971 as an independent state accompanied the familiar elements of modern polities, as reflected in ... More

Modern Cambodia Since 1863  

John Tully

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Modern Cambodian history begins with the creation of the French Protectorate in 1863. Until the 15th century, Cambodia was a regional great power, but by the late 18th it faced extinction ... More

Modern Hong Kong  

Steve Tsang

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Hong Kong entered its modern era when it became a British overseas territory in 1841. In its early years as a Crown Colony, it suffered from corruption and racial segregation but grew ... More

Modern Kyrgyzstan  

Rafis Abazov

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Modern Kyrgyzstan emerged as a political entity in 1924 when the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast (KKAO) was established as an autonomous oblast (province) under the jurisdiction of the ... More

Modern Nepal  

Marie Lecomte-Tilouine

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Within the study of the modern period of Nepali history, history is considered here both as a narrative with its internal logic, notably the periodization of history produced by Nepali ... More

Modern Palestine  

Ilan Pappe

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Subject:
Middle East
The history of Modern Palestine begins somewhere in the 19th century. Writing it, or about it, is a huge challenge. It is very hard to distinguish between the history and the ... More

Modern Saudi Arabia  

Fred Lawson

Online publication date:
May 2017
Subject:
Middle East
Modern Saudi Arabia emerged in the 1920s as the successor to a collection of local political entities on the Arabian peninsula, whose histories are only starting to be investigated. ... More

Modern Tajikistan  

Muriel Atkin

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Tajikistan became an independent country in 1991, but it also owes its existence as an arbitrary creation to the central Soviet authorities. Since the Soviet era the term “Tajik” has been ... More

Monetary History of East Asia  

Ulrich Theobald

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
East Asian monetary systems were traditionally based on commodity monies, the most famous of which were round copper coins (Cash) with a square central hole, and silver ingots (Tael, from ... More

Mu Dan’s Poetry as a History of Modern China  

Huiwen Helen Zhang

An expeditionary force soldier. A jungle war survivor. A patriot who traded opportunities in the United States for a tedious journey home to the newly founded People’s Republic of China. A ... More

The Mughal Empire  

Michael H. Fisher

Founded in 1526, the Mughal Empire expanded during the late 16th and 17th centuries across almost the entire Indian subcontinent (except for the southern peninsular tip). At its peak, the ... More

Nationalism and Minorities in China  

Sabine Dabringhaus

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Subject:
China, Political
China’s minority policy after 1949 combined the Qing legacy with a socialist affirmative strategy. The concept of a multiethnic Chinese state derived from Qing ideology and policy in the ... More

Nomadic Warfare before Firearms  

Timothy May

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Nomadic warfare in the Eurasian steppes centered on a mobile horse-archer whose composite bow was surpassed by firearms only in the 17th and 18th centuries. Until the rise of effective ... More

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