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Online Research Resources for South Asian History  

Aruna Pulipaka Magier

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Because so much of South Asia’s archival and primary source materials as well as precolonial and colonial-era published sources traditionally referred to by historians reside in physical ... More

Opium in China  

Yangwen Zheng

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Opium was used as a medicinal herb during the Tang-Song dynastic era, if not earlier, but this medicinal role was transformed during the Ming dynasty as it became an ingredient in ... More

The Origins and Growth of the Chinese Communist Movement  

Xiaohong Xu

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Subject:
China, Political
When the origins and development of the Chinese Communist Movement before it seized the state power in 1949 are examined, while conventionally the movement is periodized according to its ... More

Origins of British India  

Tirthankar Roy

The origin of British India can be traced to warfare in 18th-century Europe and India, trade-related conflicts and disputes, and the East India Company’s business model. The state that ... More

The Ottoman Empire and the Indian Ocean  

A. C. S. Peacock

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
With its conquest of the Arab lands in the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire (1300–1923) came to control some of the major entrepots of the Indian Ocean trade in the west. This expansion, ... More

Ottoman-Russian Relations  

Adrian Brisku

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Four-centuries-long encounters between the Ottoman Empire and the Grand Duchy of Muscovy/Russian Empire point to complex relations that have been triggered and defined mostly by ... More

Parsi Traders in Western India, 1600–1900  

Lakshmi Subramanian

The Parsi community enjoyed a special status in western India as enterprising traders, who were quick to appreciate the advantages of the British connection especially in driving a huge ... More

Pashtuns  

Robert Nichols

With an estimated thirty million or more in Pakistan, twelve million in Afghanistan, and perhaps a million or more in a global diaspora, Pashtuns or Pukhtuns comprise a complex ... More

The Peopling of Madagascar  

Atholl Anderson

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
Since the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century the observed ethnic complexity of the Malagasy, the Madagascan people, has been a subject of conjecture in several respects. When did ... More

Print Culture and the Circulation of Knowledge in Imperial China  

Lucille Chia

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

The Progressive Writers Association  

Maia Ramnath

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The Progressive Writers Association (PWA) was founded in the mid-1930s by a group of South Asian leftist intellectuals who moved between metropolitan and colonial contexts. Announcing ... More

Protestant Christianity in Modern Korea  

Sean C. Kim

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Subject:
Korea, Religion
Korea is the only Asian nation with a significant Protestant presence. One in five South Koreans professes the faith. With more than eight and a half million believers, Protestantism as an ... More

Publishing and Popular Literature in Imperial China  

Cynthia Brokaw

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Although popular literature circulated in manuscript from very early in Chinese history, the invention of woodblock printing or xylography in the 7th century greatly facilitated the ... More

The Regional Centrality of Vietnam’s Central Highlands  

Oscar Salemink

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Vietnam’s Central Highlands—or Tây Nguyên—area is usually described as remote, backward, and primitive, but this region has played a central role in the history of the surrounding states ... More

Religious Transitions in Twentieth Century Southeast Asia  

Robert L. Winzeler

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History. Please check back later for the full article. The ... More

Rohingya: The History of a Muslim Identity in Myanmar  

Jacques Leider

Online publication date:
May 2018
The name Rohingya denotes an ethnoreligious identity of Muslims in North Rakhine State, Myanmar (formerly Burma). The term became part of public discourse in the late 1950s and spread ... More

Russia in Asia  

Alfred J. Rieber

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Throughout Russian history, domestic and foreign observers have sought to define the similarities and differences between Russia and Asia, combining symbolic and physical geographies, ... More

Russian Orientalism  

Michael Kemper

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
This entry discusses the manifestations of Orientalism in Russian Orientology (Oriental studies), as the broad umbrella discipline that studies Russia’s own Islamic heritage and Muslim ... More

Sayyid Ahmad Khan  

David Lelyveld

The lifetime of Sayyid Ahmad Khan (“Sir Syed”) (1817–1898) spans profound transformations introduced to India and the wider world by the twin forces industrial capitalism and British ... More

Schools and Learning in Imperial China  

Linda Walton

From the consolidation of the Han empire (206 bce–220 ce) through the collapse of the Qing (1644–1911), ideas about education associated with Confucius (c. 551–479 bce) and his followers ... More

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