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Religion, Caste, and Displacement: The Matua Community  

Carola Erika Lorea

Online publication date:
Feb 2020
The struggle against untouchability, the religious history of Bengal, and the study of postcolonial displacement in South Asia can hardly be considered without paying attention to a roughly ... More

Religious Transitions in Twentieth Century Southeast Asia  

Robert L. Winzeler

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History. Please check back later for the full article. The ... More

Rohingya: The History of a Muslim Identity in Myanmar  

Jacques Leider

Online publication date:
May 2018
The name Rohingya denotes an ethnoreligious identity of Muslims in North Rakhine State, Myanmar (formerly Burma). The term became part of public discourse in the late 1950s and spread ... More

Russia in Asia  

Alfred J. Rieber

Online publication date:
Feb 2018
Throughout Russian history, domestic and foreign observers have sought to define the similarities and differences between Russia and Asia, combining symbolic and physical geographies, often ... More

Russian Orientalism  

Michael Kemper

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
This entry discusses the manifestations of Orientalism in Russian Orientology (Oriental studies), as the broad umbrella discipline that studies Russia’s own Islamic heritage and Muslim ... More

Sayyid Ahmad Khan  

David Lelyveld

The lifetime of Sayyid Ahmad Khan (“Sir Syed”) (1817–1898) spans profound transformations introduced to India and the wider world by the twin forces industrial capitalism and British ... More

Schools and Learning in Imperial China  

Linda Walton

From the consolidation of the Han empire (206 bce–220 ce) through the collapse of the Qing (1644–1911), ideas about education associated with Confucius (c. 551–479 bce) and his followers ... More

Science, Technology, and Religion in Chosŏn Korea  

Don Baker

During the 518 years of Korea’s Chosŏn dynasty (1392–1910), many things changed and many things stayed the same. After the Yi family established the Chosŏn dynasty, Confucianism became the ... More

Ships and Shipping in Southeast Asia  

Pierre-Yves Manguin

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Southeast Asian polities were destined to play an active role in the world economy because of their location at the crossroads of East Asian maritime routes and their richness in ... More

Ships and Shipwrecks in the Pre-Modern Indian Ocean  

Pierre-Yves Manguin

The Indian Ocean and its adjoining seas, from the Middle East and East Africa to Southeast Asia, have been witness to the nautical ventures of most, if not all, major sea powers of world ... More

Ships, Shipwrecks, and Archaeological Recoveries as Sources of Southeast Asian History  

Derek Heng

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Ships form a critical component of the study of Southeast Asia’s interaction both within itself as well as with the major centers of Asia and the West. Shipwreck data, accrued from ... More

Slavery in Islamic Central Asia  

Jeff Eden

Online publication date:
May 2019
By the late 19th century, when much of Islamic Central Asia was conquered by the Russian Empire, the region was home to tens of thousands of slaves. Most of these slaves were Shiʿa Muslims ... More

Social and Religious Reform in 19th-Century India  

William Gould

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
The 19th century in India, and especially the last quarter, was a period in the development of what were to become India’s major new religious movements, with lasting significance into the ... More

South Asia in the Great Divergence Debate  

Kaveh Yazdani

Since the seminal publication of Kenneth Pomeranz’s The Great Divergence (2000), there has been a continuing upsurge of writings on the possible reasons behind the rise of the West from a ... More

South Korea’s Economic Development, 1948–1996  

Michael J. Seth

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
At its independence in 1948, South Korea was an impoverished, predominately agricultural state, and most of the industry and electrical power was in North Korea. It faced a devastating war ... More

Spatial Organization of Chinese Imperial Government and Society  

Nicolas Tackett

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Despite important continuities in imperial practices and bureaucratic structures, the spatial organization of Chinese government and society evolved in significant ways over the course of ... More

Taiwan and Modern China  

Emma J. Teng

The China–Taiwan relationship continues to be one of the most highly fraught international political issues in the post-Cold War era, and a potential flashpoint in US–China affairs. Lying ... More

Tamerlane and the Timurids  

Beatrice Forbes Manz

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The Timurid dynasty was founded in 1370 by the Turkic warlord Temür, usually known in the west as Tamerlane (Temür the lame). Rising to power within the realm of Chinggis Khan’s second son ... More

Tea, Porcelain, and Silk: Chinese Exports to the West in the Early Modern Period  

Ronald C. Po

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Tracing the social lives of tea, porcelain, and silk, it is discernible that the world had been living with commodities made in and exported from China for a fairly long period of time. ... More

The Kushan Empire  

Xinru Liu

The Kushan Empire was a political power that started as a nomadic tribe from the Central Asian steppe and became established as sedentary state across South Asia and Central Asia. Migrating ... More

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