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Family and Lineage in Late Imperial China  

David Faure and Xi He

sometimes by reputable scholars, to celebrate genealogical compilation. In other words, while many written genealogies remained no more than scribbled notes, the compilation of extensive genealogies became serious literary and archival undertakings. Such genealogies were hardly known in the Song dynasty, but from the Ming dynasty, they became increasingly common. Some such genealogies were printed using woodblocks and distributed to families within the lineage. Integrated with ancestral sacrifice, the written genealogy proved to be a powerful tool of communal organization


The Temporalities of Southeast Asian Historiography  

Wayan Jarrah Sastrawan

constituted through genealogy. 33 Southeast Asian genealogies also drew on foreign traditions in search of models. The Hindu epic traditions, the early Buddhist histories, and the Islamic scriptures all provide ancient lineages that were adopted in Southeast Asian historical texts. Genealogical histories were written in many languages; well-known examples include the Sejarah Melayu (Malay), Babad Tanah Jawi (Javanese), Carita Parahyangan (Sundanese), Gowa Chronicle and Talloq Chronicle (Makassarese), and Bone Chronicle (Bugis). The royal genealogies of the southern


Demography of Qing China  

Shuang Chen

the Genealogical Society of Utah, see Melvin P. Thatcher, “Selected Sources for Late Imperial China on Microfilm at the Genealogical Society of Utah,” Late Imperial China 19, no. 2 (1998): 111–129. 72. Many scholars have examined the issue of under-registration in the lineage genealogical data. See Ted A. Telford, “Survey of Social Demographic Data in Chinese Genealogies,” Late Imperial China 7, no. 2 (1986): 118–148; Stevan Harrell, “On the Holes in Chinese Genealogies,” Late Imperial China 8, no. 1 (1987): 52–87; Zhongwei Zhao, “Chinese Genealogies as a


Ethnicity of Turkic Central Asia  

Peter Finke

detailed description of two cases of ethnic and national identity. Kazaks and Uzbeks, as well as the corresponding states, represent the two largest entities within Turkic Central Asia, and they stand for fundamentally different concepts of ethnicity, which I have elsewhere labeled as genealogical and territorial, respectively. 45 Each of the two cases describes the historical evolution and changes of both categories as well as their contemporary understanding and modes of interaction across ethnic boundaries. The respective state politics and the national ideology they


Hadramis in Africa  

Anne K. Bang

mystical insights are transmitted from teacher to disciple, but also as a “prophetic light,” passed on through patrilineal descent. The combination made for a particularly strong tendency to keep written genealogies or, at least, to project these genealogies backward to claim status or religious authority (or both) in the societies in which they lived. The emphasis on genealogy has also meant that the sada tended to keep a spiritual focus on the Hadramawt and, particularly, on the city of Tarim. 2 Many migrants of tribal descent ( qabā c il ) also kept their nisba (patronymic


The Imperial State and the Ruling Elite  

Song Chen

great clans vanished from history with the collapse of the Tang empire. War in the 10th century destroyed not only the dense networks of the great clans and their landed estates, but also the genealogies that had been the basis of a clan’s self-definition and had substantiated its claim to high status. No effort was made, for more than a century, to reconstruct the lost genealogies. This apparent lack of interest in ancestry reflected the cultural ethos of the 10th-century military dynasts, including the Song founders, who hailed predominantly from the Hebei provinces


Tamerlane and the Timurids  

Beatrice Forbes Manz

Doctrine and Organization. The Khwājagān/Nashbandīya in the first Generation after Bahā’uddīn. ANOR 1, Halle; Berlin, 1998. Historiography and Genealogy Woods, John E. “The Rise of Tīmūrīd Historiography.” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 46.2 (1987): 81–108. Woods, John E. The Timurid Dynasty. Papers on Inner Asia, # 14. Indiana University, Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies. Bloomington, 1990. (A summary genealogy of the dynasty) Collections Michele Bernardini , ed. La civiltà timuride come fenomeno internazionale. Oriente Moderno, numero monografico


Khojas of Kashgar  

Alexandre Papas

artistic production of monumental genealogical scrolls ( shajara ) made for his descendants in Kashgaria and Fergana. 27 Thanks to their hereditary mode of succession, which ensured the uninterrupted transmission of Sufi knowledge and baraka , Naqshbandi Khoja lineages, especially Āfāqi, remained solid as well as active through several sub-branches. The loss of effective power certainly did not obliterate their religious authority among the Turkestani population. At the core of the conception of Khoja sanctity laid the idea of a genealogical permanence within historical


Sufi Dynastic Families in Pre-Mughal India  

Sushmita Banerjee

Muslims. In medieval South Asia, genealogy, whether lineal or spiritual, was a key social identifier. This article details the complex history of the Sufis and sufi fraternities from the 13th to the 15th centuries. Although the term “sufi” is commonly used to refer to individuals who are spiritually inclined, they did not constitute a monolithic body of people. Very often, the affiliation of sufis to a silsilah (spiritual order) has been the prime mode of classification of sufi norms and ideals. The silsilah is a spiritual genealogy in which spiritual authority


Turkic Identity in Mongol and Post-Mongol Central Asia and the Qipchaq Steppe  

Joo-Yup Lee

94 The Timurids also identified themselves as Mongol. For instance, the anonymous author of the Muʿizz al-ansāb fī shajarat al-ansāb , a genealogy of the Timurids and Chinggisids composed for Shāhrukh (r. 1405–1447 ), son of Temür, refers to the Timurid lineage in the following manner: “The genealogy of the Mongol rulers, in which are the ancestors of His Majesty the sultan [Shāhrukh], who are the fruits of that genealogy ( shajara-yi ansāb-i salāṭīn-i Mughul ki ābāʾ u ajdād-i ḥazrat-i salṭanat dākhil-i ān shajara, bal s amara-yi ān shajara-and ).” 95 Likewise


Rajput Kingship  

Arik Moran

Mughal Empire. The narrative poem and genealogy of the Chauhan kings entitled Hammīra Mahakavya (composed 1401 ), the epic tale of “the last Hindu emperor” entitled Prithviraj Raso ( 16th century ), and the mystical allegory of the Rajput queen Padmavat by Sufi poet Jayasi (also 16th century ) are exemplary of this tendency. A century after the fall of the fort of Ranthambore to the sultans of Delhi ( 1301 ce ), the Jain poet Narayani Surdas composed the Hammīra Mahakavya , a narrative poem that opens with a genealogy of the Chauhan lineage and the details


Jadidism, Modernity, and Islamic Communities of Imperial Russia  

Edward J. Lazzerini

left the country for Europe or Turkey, while those who remained and tried to work with the Bolsheviks, with rare exceptions, were purged, jailed, and then executed in 1937–1938. These few paragraphs provide a brief synopsis of the history of Jadidism, but offer little about its genealogy—causal connections that tell what and who contributed to its creation, where, and when; influences on its evolution from inside and outside the Russian Empire; key characteristics and goals, especially with regard to religion generally and Islam in particular; and prominent advocates


Zheng He and Ming China’s Voyages in the Early 15th Century  

Geoff Wade

the Republic of China’s textbooks and, through popular publications, the eunuch became as famous as other martial heroes in Chinese history. The 1930s also saw major debates over the reasons for the voyages. Serendipitously, it was also in the early 20th century that the family genealogy, the Nanjing grave, and the original domicile of Zheng He were “discovered.” Following the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949 , there was a flurry of publications on Zheng He. In the mid-1950s there were sometimes twenty articles a year being published on


The Population History of Asia  

Tim Dyson

characteristics which may have prevailed in earlier times. 81 Perhaps the most promising sources, however, are genealogical records, some of which have been assembled for periods of several centuries. The most generally representative are probably those in the China multi-generational panel dataset for Liaoning covering the period 1749–1909; also notable are those of the Qing dynasty from the archives of the Office of the Imperial Lineage. 82 Of course, genealogical data refer to specific lineages. They usually refer to elite groups rather than to wider populations. Moreover


The Ismaili Tradition in Iran: 13th Century to the Present  

Daniel Beben

among other things, for its effort at establishing a canonical account of the genealogy of the Nizārī imams. Shihāb al-Dīn’s brother, the Imam Sulṭān Muḥammad Shāh (d. 1957 ), sponsored the work of a prolific Iranian author named Muḥammad Fidāʾī Khurāsānī (d. 1923 ), who among other things composed a historical work titled Hidāyat al-muʾminīn al-ṭālibīn , copies of which circulated widely among the Ismailis of Iran and Central Asia. While earlier Nizārī texts contained accounts of the genealogy of the imams, Khurāsānī’s work is noteworthy for being the first historical


Kachin Communities in Myanmar  

Mandy Sadan

recounted through the genealogies that would form the core of significant community rituals, such as large “feast of merit”–style rituals such as manau , which brought communities together and at which relationships and hierarchies would be consolidated and refreshed. These genealogies took the form of what have become known as “creation stories,” as they recounted the origins of the earth from a blip in the universe down to the endpoint, which was invariably the site where the performance was being made. The main purpose of these genealogies traditionally was not


The Indian Princely States and Their Rulers  

Angma D. Jhala

highlighted histories of public health in Mysore, Travancore, and Orissa. 122 Stephen Legg and more recently Priyasha Saksena have investigated complex histories of international law and indirect rule in the princely states. 123 Jayasinhji Jhala’s multidisciplinary edited volume Genealogy, Archive, Image addresses the longue durée history of one kingdom, Jhalavad, from the precolonial to postcolonial era, through the varying lenses of folklore and mythology, literature, ethnomusicology, art and digital media, anthropology, and history. 124 There are also several


The Kazakh Khanate  

Joo-Yup Lee

Abū al-Ghāzī Bahādur Khan (r. 1644–1663) and completed by his son Abū al-Muẓaffar Anūsha Muḥammad (r. 1663–1687) in 1665; and the Firdaws al-Iqbāl , a history of the Qunghrat Uzbek Dynasty, written by Shīr Muḥammad Mīrāb Mūnīs in 1804. 70 They offer important information on the genealogy of the Kazakh khans and the Kazakhs who came into contact with the Khivan Uzbeks in the 17th and the 18th centuries. The Ilkhanid and Timurid Histories For the history of the progenitors of the Kazakhs, the Jāmiʿ al-tavārīkh , the universal history written in Persian by Rashīd


Bukharan Trade Networks in Eurasia  

Erika Monahan

Shaibanid Bukhara, descendants of the prophet Sayyid Ata. These sacred genealogies of Siberian Bukharans merge spiritual and political prestige in that they are rooted in a union between descendants of the Prophet via Saint Sayyid Ata (thereby rooting legitimacy in Islamic heritage) and a daughter of Kuchum (thereby rooting legitimacy in Chinggisid heritage).Russian archives have produced evidence of correspondence between Kuchum and Khan Abdullah II. 30 Alfrid Bustanov has discovered Tatar genealogies that recount the history of the Khwāja families’ service under Kuchum


Khorezm and the Khanate of Khiva  

William Wood

DeWeese, Devin. “Mapping Khwārazmian Connections in the History of Sufi Traditions: Local Embeddedness, Regional Networks, and Global Ties of the Sufi Communities of Khwārazm.” Eurasian Studies 14 (2016): 37–97. DeWeese, Devin. “Sacred Descent and Sufi Legitimation in a Genealogical Text from Eighteenth-Century Central Asia: The Sharaf Ata’i Tradition in Khwarazm.” In Sayyids and Sharifs in Muslim Societies: The Living Links to the Prophet. Edited by Kazuo Morimoto , 210–230. London: Routledge, 2012. Eden, Jeff. “Beyond the Bazaars: Geographies of the