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Afghan Trading Networks  

Magnus Marsden and Benjamin D. Hopkins

Afghanistan has long been conventionally regarded as a remote space peripheral to the wider world. Yet scholarship produced in the 2nd decade of the 21st century suggests its multiple ... More

A Historical Sketch of Buddhism in Tibet  

Dan Smyer Yü and Sonam Wangmo

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
With the available historical Tibetan written records from late 8th century on and the existing scholarly works on Buddhism, this historical overview recounts how Buddhism was Tibetanized ... More

Ancient Steppe Nomad Societies  

Nikolay Kradin

Online publication date:
May 2018
Throughout more than two millennia, the extensive droughty areas in East Asia were occupied by pastoral nomads. A long history exists of hybridity between steppe and agricultural areas. ... More

Asia in the Gunpowder Revolution  

Scott C. Levi

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
Contrary to long-held notions that gunpowder weapons technologies were devised in the West and gradually transmitted eastward into Asia, more recent scholarship indicates that innovations ... More

Bukhara under the Mongols  

Michael Hope

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
In Muharram ah 617/March 1220 ce Chinggis Khan led his armies to Bukhara as part of a larger campaign against the Khwārazmshāh Empire (616–621/1220–1225). The city quickly surrendered and ... More

The Early Silk Road(s)  

Armin Selbitschka

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Much has been said and written about the “Silk Road” since Ferdinand Freiherr von Richthofen coined the phrase in 1877. Fostered by spectacular discoveries by so-called explorers such as ... More

The Emirate of Bukhara  

Andreas Wilde

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
In the 19th century, the Emirate of Bukhara was one of three independent Uzbek principalities known as khanates. Ruled by the Manghit amīrs, Bukhara was the biggest and most important of ... More

Ethnic Conflict in Modern Central Asia  

Sergey Abashin

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Pre-modern Central Asia saw a lot of violence and wars that had religious underpinnings or originated from genealogical claims. The colonial and Soviet reforms brought about ... More

Ethnicity of Turkic Central Asia  

Peter Finke

Ethnic identity is a fuzzy concept for several reasons. On the one hand, the very question of what is an ethnic group is not an easy one to answer. On the other hand, once this is ... More

Georgia before the Mongols  

Stephen H. Rapp Jr.

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Subject:
Central Asia
Nestled in one of Eurasia’s most energetic crossroads, Georgia has a long and multifaceted history. The remains of Homo georgicus excavated at Dmanisi in southern Georgia belong to the ... More

Historical Geography of the Pamirs  

Hermann Kreutzmann

Online publication date:
May 2017
The Pamirs have been a contested space in different periods of time. Access to fertile pastures characterized the local economic competition between nomads and mountain farmers. ... More

The Ismaili of Central Asia  

Daniel Beben

The Ismailis are one of the largest Muslim minority populations of Central Asia, and they make up the second largest Shiʿi Muslim community globally. First emerging in the second half of ... More

The Kazakh Khanate  

Joo-Yup Lee

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
The Kazakh Khanate was a Chinggisid nomadic state that ruled the eastern Qipchaq Steppe (Dasht-i Qipchāq), a steppe zone that roughly corresponds to modern-day Kazakhstan, during the ... More

Khojas of Kashgar  

Alexandre Papas

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
The Khojas of Kashgar name a Sufi lineage, which became a ruling dynasty in eastern Turkestan or present-day Xinjiang in western China. Founded by the Samarkandi spiritual master Ahmad ... More

Khorezm and the Khanate of Khiva  

William Wood

The Khanate of Khiva, one of the Uzbek khanates of Central Asia, refers to a political entity in the region of Khorezm from the early 16th century until 1920. The term itself, which was ... More

The Kök Türk Empires  

Michael R. Drompp

Online publication date:
May 2018
The people who called themselves Türk (Chinese Tujue突厥) appear in historical records only a few years before they overthrow their political masters in the middle of the 6th century CE and ... More

Land and Water in Tsarist and Early Soviet Central Asia  

Beatrice Penati

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Precipitation and elevation shape land and water usage in Central Asia, distinguishing the southern irrigated oases from the steppes, deserts, and prairies, where instead nomadic ... More

The Medieval Khwājagān and the Early Naqshbandīyya  

Ali Gibran Siddiqui

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The Khwājagān (lit. “Masters”) were a constellation of Ṣūfīs in 13th- to 16th-century Mawara an-Nahr and Khurasan. The Naqshbandīyya were Ṣūfīs from among the Khwājagān who followed the ... More

The Medieval Uyghurs of the 8th through 14th Centuries  

Michael C. Brose

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Subject:
Central Asia
The medieval Uyghurs became a political entity in the mid-8th century when they established their steppe empire as the inheritors of the ancient Türk steppe tribal confederation. They ... More

Modern Armenia  

Simon Payaslian

The Armenian people entered the modern era with their historic lands of more than three millennia divided between two empires—the Ottoman and Persian empires. The Ottomans ruled the ... More

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