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Buddhist and Muslim Interactions in Asian History  

Johan Elverskog

Online publication date:
Sep 2019
In the popular imagination, the meeting of Buddhism and Islam is often conceptualized as one of violence; namely, Muslims destroying the Dharma. Of course, in more recent years this ... More

Buddhist Religious Practice in Imperial China  

Natasha Heller

Buddhist practice transformed the religious landscape in China, introducing new forms of mental cultivation and new ritual technologies within an altered cosmology of spiritual goals. ... More

The Canton Trade, 1700–1842  

Paul A. Van Dyke

Online publication date:
May 2017
In 1684, China reopened its doors to trade with the outside world, which had a huge impact on the development of global commerce. Canton quickly emerged as one of the few ports in the world ... More

China and the Asian World, 1500–1900  

Matthew W. Mosca

Online publication date:
Dec 2017
Subject:
China, Political
China’s relations with the Asian world between 1500 and 1900 were shaped by a variety of political, economic, and cultural factors. A common denominator in these international relationships ... More

China’s Imperial Institution  

Yuri Pines

Emperors were the symbolic and administrative pivot of the Chinese empire ever since its establishment in 221 bce. They were arguably the most powerful human beings on earth. Their nominal ... More

Chinese Buddhist Travelers: Faxian, Xuanzang, and Yijing  

Max Deeg

When Buddhism started to become part of religious life in China from the 1st century ce onward, the Chinese were confronted with several peculiar aspects of the first major foreign religion ... More

Chinese Ceramic Production and Trade  

John Miksic

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Ceramics are the most abundant types of artifacts made by human beings in the last 12,000 years. Chinese potters discern two types of products: earthenware (tao), which is porous and does ... More

Civil Law and Jurisprudence in Imperial China  

Nap-yin Lau

In terms of jurisdiction and punishment, the border between civil and criminal laws in imperial China is not clear cut. The same officials can handle both civil and criminal cases, and ... More

Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, and Chinese Popular Religion  

Mark Meulenbeld

Online publication date:
Nov 2019
Subject:
China, Religion
The three principal religious denominations of China, referred to in English as Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism, all share a concern with self-cultivation. Of these so-called “Three ... More

Daoism and Popular Religion in Imperial China  

Terry Kleeman

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Throughout the course of premodern China’s history, the planning and performance of religious ritual has been a primary concern. These offerings of bloody victuals, drink, and, later, ... More

Empire and Historiography in Southwest China  

John Herman

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
Although frontier studies enjoy a long and robust history in China, a disproportionate amount of attention has focused on North China and its relations with Central and Northeast Asia, ... More

Ethnic Groups of Manchuria  

Juha Janhunen

Ethnic groups of the geographical region of Manchuria can be understood in relation to their cultural, demographic, and linguistic differences and similarities; historical formation; and ... More

The Expansion of the Qing Dynasty of China and the Zunghar Mongol State  

Peter Perdue

Online publication date:
Jun 2017
The Manchus, a powerful military state in northeast Eurasia, declared the founding of the Qing dynasty in the early 17th century. They conquered Beijing in 1644, and the core of Ming China ... More

Family and Lineage in Late Imperial China  

David Faure and Xi He

Online publication date:
Jan 2020
Like all peoples, Chinese people value their families. Unlike many other peoples, they see them in the wider context of their lineages, that is to say, in terms of descent lines traced from ... More

Famine in Imperial and Modern China  

Kathryn Edgerton-Tarpley

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Famines have played an important role in China’s history. Because the Confucian classics interpreted natural disasters as warnings from Heaven, in ancient and imperial China feeding the ... More

Fiscal Policy and Institutions in Imperial China  

Taisu Zhang

Up until the final four decades of the Qing Dynasty, fiscal extraction in imperial China was primarily a matter of taxing agricultural production, generally in the form of an annual ... More

Gender and Social Life in Imperial China  

Weijing Lu

Social life in imperial China was structured on the Confucian gender principles of the separation of male and female and the division of “inner and outer” spheres. Homosociality prevailed ... More

Imperial Maritime China  

Angela Schottenhammer

Imperial China has a long-standing, multifaceted, and interesting imperial maritime history. Of particular importance in this context are the commercial dimensions of China’s maritime ... More

Intellectual Trends in Imperial China  

Chang Woei Ong

Online publication date:
Nov 2017
In a letter to his friend Wang Hui王回 (1023–1065), the great Song dynasty (960–1279) politician, scholar, thinker, and writer Wang Anshi王安石 (1021–1086) makes a distinction between the golden ... More

Japanese Pirates and the East Asian Maritime World, 1200–1600  

Peter D. Shapinsky

Historians translate a variety of terms from 13th- through 17th-century Japan, China, Korea, and Europe as “Japanese pirates” (e.g., Jp. kaizoku, Kr. waegu, Ch. wokou). These constructs ... More

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