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Adaptation to Current and Future Climate in Pastoral Communities Across Africa  

Edna Wangui

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
Pastoralists around the world are exposed to climate change and increasing climate variability. Various downscaled regional climate models in Africa support community reports of rising ... More

Adaptive Governance  

Ronald D. Brunner and Amanda H. Lynch

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
Adaptive governance is defined by a focus on decentralized decision-making structures and procedurally rational policy, supported by intensive natural and social science. Decentralized ... More

Advent of Climate Science  

Deborah R. Coen

Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Climate Science. Please check back later for the full article. ... More

Aerosols and Climate  

Bjørn H. Samset

Online publication date:
Oct 2016
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
Among the factors that affect the climate, few are as diverse and challenging to understand as aerosols. Minute particles suspended in the atmosphere, aerosols are emitted through a wide ... More

Affective Imagery, Risk Perceptions, and Climate Change Communication  

Anthony Leiserowitz and Nicholas Smith

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
Affective imagery, or connotative meanings, play an important role in shaping public risk perceptions, policy support, and broader responses to climate change. These simple “top-of-mind” ... More

Agenda Building, Narratives, and Attention Cycles in Climate Change News Coverage  

James Shanahan

Online publication date:
May 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
Social scientists and media critics have often been befuddled about how and why news coverage of important issues takes the shapes that it does. While some issues seem to behave according ... More

Agricultural Extension and Climate Change Communication  

Linda S. Prokopy, Wendy-Lin Bartels, Gary Burniske, and Rebecca Power

Online publication date:
Oct 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
Agricultural extension has evolved over the last 200 years from a system of top-down dissemination of information from experts to farmers to a more complex system, in which a diversity of ... More

Alpine Ice Cores as Climate and Environmental Archives  

Pascal Bohleber

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
The European Alps feature a unique situation with the densest network of long-term instrumental climate observations and anthropogenic emission sources located in the immediate vicinity of ... More

The Arts and Humanities in Climate Change Engagement  

Julia B. Corbett and Brett Clark

Online publication date:
May 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
The communication strategy of simply sharing more scientific information has not effectively engaged and connected people to climate change in ways that facilitate understanding and ... More

Atmospheric Blocking in Observation and Models  

Stefano Tibaldi and Franco Molteni

Online publication date:
Jan 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
The atmospheric circulation in the mid-latitudes of both hemispheres is usually dominated by westerly winds and by planetary-scale and shorter-scale synoptic waves, moving mostly from west ... More

Atmospheric Heating Source Over the Tibetan Plateau and Its Regional Climate Impact  

Guoxiong Wu, Anmin Duan, and Yimin Liu

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
With an average elevation of 4 kilometers, a combined area of more than 2.5 million square kilometers, and a variety of complicated landscapes, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) constitutes the ... More

Audience Segmentation and Climate Change Communication  

Donald W. Hine, Wendy J. Phillips, Aaron B. Driver, and Mark Morrison

Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
Scientists and policy makers face significant challenges when attempting to engage the public about climate change. An important first step is to understand the number and nature of the ... More

Baltic Sea Level: Past, Present, and Future  

Ralf Weisse and Birgit Hünicke

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
A multitude of geophysical processes contribute to and determine variations and changes in the height of the Baltic Sea water surface. These processes act on a broad range of ... More

Celebrities and Climate Change  

Julie Doyle, Nathan Farrell, and Michael K. Goodman

Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
Since the mid-2000s, entertainment celebrities have played increasingly prominent roles in the cultural politics of climate change, ranging from high-profile speeches at UN climate ... More

Changes in African Glaciers since the 19th Century  

Stefan Hastenrath

Online publication date:
May 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
In equatorial East Africa, glaciers still exist on Mount Kenya, Kilimanjaro, and Ruwenzori. The decreasing ice extent has been documented by field reports since the end of the 19th century ... More

Changes in Precipitation Over Southern Africa During Recent Centuries  

David Nash

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
Precipitation levels in southern Africa exhibit a marked east–west gradient and are characterized by strong seasonality and high interannual variability. Much of the mainland south of 15°S ... More

Changes in Precipitation Over West Africa During Recent Centuries  

Stefan Norrgård

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
Water, not temperature, governs life in West Africa, and the region is both temporally and spatially greatly affected by rainfall variability. Recent rainfall anomalies, for example, have ... More

Climate and Health across Africa  

Benjamin F. Zaitchik

Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
Humans have understood the importance of climate to human health since ancient times. In some cases, the connections appear to be obvious: a flood can cause drownings, a drought can lead ... More

Climate and Conflict in Africa  

Jürgen Scheffran, Peter Michael Link, and Janpeter Schilling

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
Climate change was conceived as a “risk multiplier” that could exacerbate security risks and conflicts in fragile regions and hotspots where poverty, violence, injustice, and social ... More

Climate and Simulation  

Gabriele Gramelsberger

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Oxford Research Encyclopedia:
Climate Science
Climate and simulation have become interwoven concepts during the past decades because, on the one hand, climate scientists shouldn’t experiment with real climate and, on the other hand, ... More

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