Letter from the Editor

The Oxford Research Encyclopedia (ORE) of Business and Management is a distinctive enterprise designed to provide thorough and cutting-edge knowledge on business and management. The field of business and management is vibrant, varied, and vital, and these attributes describe the ORE as well. This resource provides a compilation of research from scholars, students, and practitioners, and is designed to stimulate the development of new knowledge in business and management—knowledge which is derived from and focuses on multiple and diverse disciplines.

Much like the world in which they exist, organizations and managers operate in an environment characterized by increasing complexity, uncertainty, and volatility, which requires them to respond to unprecedented challenges while simultaneously identifying and exploiting significant and valuable opportunities. We are now experiencing substantial competition in the global marketplace, which is leading to the globalization of knowledge. The stakeholders to which managers and organizations must respond are growing in number and complexity, especially with the interdependencies among markets across the world. And innovation and knowledge are exploding, partly due to the interrelationships within and across country borders, necessitating access to current and reliable sources of information and knowledge such as the ORE of Business and Management.

The ORE is an integrated, comprehensive, authoritative, and accessible reference tool for researchers, students, and professionals needing trusted information and insight. A living resource, the ORE continuously provides new knowledge about an expanding number of critical topics. It contains broad and interpretative essays, all connected via hyperlinks, keywords, and other search options, helping readers build bridges by identifying related articles. This enables researchers to delve deeply into a specific subject and also learn about related topics, thus expanding their knowledge and professional insight.

In sum, this project is global, flexible, and future oriented. It reflects the field’s vast array of ideas, theories, research findings, prescriptions, and proscriptions in a rich, comprehensive exploration of business and management.


Michael A. Hitt

Editor in Chief