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Entrepreneurship is a critical driver of economic health, industrial rejuvenation, social change, and technological progress. In an attempt to determine how to best support such an important component of society, researchers and practitioners alike continue to ask why some countries, regions, and cities have more entrepreneurship than others. Unfortunately, the answer is not clear. This question is addressed by focusing on location-based support or infrastructure for entrepreneurship. A framework based on a social systems perspective guides this examination by concentrating on three main categories of infrastructure: resource endowments, institutional arrangements, and proprietary functions. Work from the knowledge-based perspective of entrepreneurship, systems of innovation, entrepreneurial ecosystems, and resource dependence literatures is integrated into this framework.

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A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, organize, and present spatial data, which is referenced to locations on the Earth. Locational information is of value for a wide range of human activities for decision-making relating to these activities. As spatial data is relatively complex, GIS represents a challenging computer application that has developed later than some other forms of computer systems. GIS uses spatial data for a region of the Earth; such regional data are of interest to a wide range of users whose activities take place in that region, and so many users in otherwise disconnected domains share spatial data. The availability and cost of spatial data are important drivers of GIS use, and the sourcing and integration of spatial data are continuing research concerns. GIS use now spans a wide range of disciplines, and the diversity created is one of the obstacles to a well-integrated research field. Location analysis is the use of GIS for general-purpose analysis to determine the preferred geographic placement of human activities. Location analytics uses spatial data and quantitative spatial models to support decision-making, including location analysis. The growth of location analytics reflects the increasing amounts of data now available owing to new data collection technologies such as drones and because of the massive amounts of data collected by the use of mobile devices like smartphones. Location analytics allow many valuable new services that play an important role in new developments such as smart cities. Location analytics techniques potentially allow the tracking of individuals, and this raises many ethical questions, however useful the service provided; therefore, issues related to privacy are of increasing concern to researchers.