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date: 20 March 2023



  • William Allison Laidlaw,
  • John Boardman,
  • Simon Hornblower
  •  and Antony Spawforth


The chief city of *Euboea throughout antiquity, controlling the narrowest part of the Euripus channel and (after 411 bce) a bridge to the mainland. In the 8th cent. bce Chalcis, with its neighbour *Eretria, planted colonies in *Italy and *Sicily; its precise role in the Syrian emporion of *Al Mina is debated. In the later 8th cent. bce it disputed with Eretria possession of the Lelantine plain, which lay between them (see greece (prehistory and history); Lefkandi). In the 7th cent. colonies were sent to the north Aegean (Thuc. 4. 110. 1 for ‘Chalkidic’ *Torone). A centre of trade and manufacture, Chalcis was famous for its metalwork. In 506 it was compelled to cede part of its plain to Athenian cleruchs (see cleruchy). The city made common cause, however, with Athens during the invasion of *Xerxes. It led a revolt of Euboea against Athens (446) but was defeated (cf.


  • Ancient Geography

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